Table 1

Overview of device types in remote patient monitoring

DeviceData collectedPositivesLimitations
Physiological measurementsPulse oximeterHeart rate
SpO2
Low cost
Widely available
Non-invasive
False alarms
Variable methodology
Separate device
In-line monitor/non-invasive ventilationRespiratory rate
End-tidal CO2
Does not require active participationOnly applicable for those on home oxygen
Lung function variablesHandheld spirometryFEV1
FVC (or FEV6)
Time-consuming
Accurate data collection requires more training
Weakly associated with acute change in symptoms
Peak expiratory flow metersPeak expiratory flow rateCheaper, simpler than spirometryLess widely used than spirometry
Change does not precede exacerbation
SymptomsSymptom diary or questionnaireRespiratory symptoms
Activity level
High complianceRepresentative of a discrete time point
Symptoms influenced by external factors
Device actuationSelf-reported or measured medication useMonitor adherence to inhaled therapyCorrelates with symptom burden
Can be used for maintenance and rescue inhalers
Does not require active participation
Objective surrogate for respiratory symptoms
Recall bias if reported
  • FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FEV6, forced expiratory volume in 6 s; FVC, forced vital capacity ; SpO2, oxygen saturation.