Table 1

Characteristics of patients seen in emergency department, by era

CharacteristicsPre-COVID-19 era
N=19,083
COVID-19 era
N=8616
P value*
Overall, no (%)19,083 (68.9)8616 (31.1)<0.001
Sex, no (%)
 Male9960 (51.2)4426 (51.4)0.20
 Female9123 (47.8)4190 (48.6)
Age, no (%)
 <24359 (22.8)2041 (23.7)0.12
 ≥214,724 (77.2)6575 (76.3)
 Mean (SD)7.10 (5.86)7.38 (6.10)<0.001
Race, no (%)
 White5046 (26.4)2505 (29.1)<0.001
 Black9378 (49.1)4029 (46.8)
 Asian882 (4.6)380 (4.4)
 American Indian/Pacific Islander36 (0.2)18 (0.2)
 Native Hawaiian20 (0.1)8 (0.1)
 Other3721 (19.5)1676 (19.5)
Ethnicity, no (%)
 Non-Hispanic15,869 (83.2)7196 (83.5)0.46
 Hispanic3214 (16.8)1420 (16.5)
National ADI rank
 1–25 (highest SES)5392 (28.3)2592 (30.1)0.001
 26–504766 (25.0)2124 (24.7)
 51–754219 (22.1)1932 (22.4)
 76–100 (lowest SES)4706 (24.7)1968 (22.8)
Hospital, no (%)
 PED 13137 (16.4)1269 (14.7)<0.001
 PED 25398 (28.3)2196 (25.5)
 PED 310 548 (55.3)5151 (59.8)
Overall hospital admission, no (%)1471 (7.7)992 (11.5)<0.001
Presence of head injury, no (%)1058 (5.5)553 (6.4)0.004
  • For categorical variables, proportions are compared with χ2 tests.

  • *For continuous variables, means are compared with t-tests.

  • ADI, Area Deprivation Index; SES, socioeconomic status.