Table 3

Summary of PIONEER results28 30–38

Trial (n)Background regimen†Doses and comparatorsBody weight change from baseline (kg)Patients with weight loss of>5% (%)
PIONEER 1 (n=703)23Diet and ExerciseOral semaglutide 3 mg–1.520
Oral semaglutide 7 mg–2.327
Oral semaglutide 14 mg–3.7*40*
Placebo–1.415
PIONEER 2 (n=822)20MetforminOral semaglutide 14 mg–3.841
Empagliflozin 25 mg–3.736
PIONEER 3 (n=1864)22Metformin, SulfonylureaOral semaglutide 3 mg–1.213
Oral semaglutide 7 mg–2.2*19*
Oral semaglutide 14 mg–3.1*30*
Sitagliptin 100 mg–0.610
PIONEER 4 (n=711)25Metformin, SGLT-2 inhibitorOral semaglutide 14 mg–4.4*44*
Liraglutide 1.8 mg–3.128
Placebo–0.58
PIONEER 5 (n=324)24Metformin, Basal insulin, SulfonylureaOral semaglutide 14 mg–3.4*36*
Placebo–0.910
PIONEER 6 (n=3183)30No exclusion based on regimenOral semaglutide 14 mg–4.2NR
Placebo–0.8
PIONEER 7 (n=504)281–2 antihyperglycemic agentsOral semaglutide (flexible dose 3, 7, or 14 mg)–2.6*27*
Sitagliptin 100 mg–0.712
PIONEER 8 (n=731)27Metformin, insulin (basal, basal-bolus, or premixed)Oral semaglutide 3 mg–1.4*13*
Oral semaglutide 7 mg–2.4*31*
Oral semaglutide 14 mg–3.7*39*
Placebo–0.43
PIONEER 9 (n=243)26Diet and exercise or one antihyperglycemic agentOral semaglutide 3 mg–0.64
Oral semaglutide 7 mg–1.1*10
Oral semaglutide 14 mg–2.4*34*
Liraglutide 0.9 mg0.00
Placebo–1.110
PIONEER 10 (n=458)29one antihyperglycemic agentOral semaglutide 3 mg–0.25
Oral semaglutide 7 mg–1.0*18*
Oral semaglutide 14 mg–2.2*31*
Dulaglutide 0.75 mg–0.36
  • PIONEER (Peptide Innovation for Early Diabetes Treatment) SGLT-2 inhibitor (Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors)

  • *P<0.05 indicating the superiority of semaglutide versus the respective comparator.

  • †Alone or in combination with one another.

  • NR, not recorded.