Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics, comorbidities and inflammatory markers of patients according to baseline magnesium levels*

CharacteristicsTotalNormomagnesemia
Mg <2.5
n=89
Hypermagnesemia
Mg ≥2.5
n=104
P value
Age, years: mean (SD)19353 (17)53 (15)
Male sex: n (%)10848 (54)60 (58)0.66
Race: n (%)
 Latinx16672 (81)94 (90)0.02
 Caucasian1310 (11)3 (3)
 African American86 (7)2 (2)
 Other61 (1)5 (5)
BMI, kg/m2: mean (SD)19333.62 (11)32.95 (8.20)0.62
 <308639 (44%)47 (45%)0.84
 ≥3010750 (56%)57 (55%)
Serum creatinine: mean (SD)1930.73 (0.20)0.73 (0.18)0.80
Signs and symptoms: n (%)
 Fever (subjective)14359 (66)84 (81)0.02
 Dyspnea16065 (73)95 (91)0.001
 Cough15061 (69)89 (86)0.005
 Diarrhea4021 (24)19 (18)0.36
 Anosmia86 (7)2 (2)0.14
 Dysgeusia1611 (12)5 (5)0.06
Comorbidities: n (%)
 Diabetes mellitus8642 (47)44 (42)0.50
 Hypertension8540 (45)45 (43)0.82
 Cardiac disease2612 (13)14 (13)0.99
 Respiratory disease178 (9)9 (9)0.93
 Liver disease96 (7)3 (3)0.21
 Malignancy199 (10)10 (10)0.91
 Immunosuppression85 (6)3 (3)0.34
 Dyslipidemia3416 (18)18 (17)0.90
Vital signs: mean (SD) at presentation
 Temperature19338.02 (0.92)38.38 (0.88)0.001
 Oxygen saturation %19386.5% (13%)80% (14%)0.001
 APACHE II score6013.91 (5.35)16.85 (6.35)0.15
Inflammatory markers: mean (SD)
 CRP17311.48 (8.02)15.57 (9.20)0.002
 ESR17157.06 (29.97)76.60 (24.20)<0.0001
 Ferritin165499.14 (435)1094.27 (1149)<0.0001
 D-dimer1531395.43 (1239)2075.78 (1586)0.005
 LDH160365.64 (303)470.77 (227)0.01
 Procalcitonin1750.38 (1.38)1.80 (7)0.06
  • Results displayed in bold highlight the clinical characteristics which reached statistical significance.

  • *A p value <0.05 is used for statistical significance. T-test was used for comparison of continuous variables whereas χ2 and Fisher’s exact tests were used for categorical variables. Signs and symptoms: numbers represent patients who reported these symptoms. Laboratory values and signs and symptoms were abstracted through chart review. Total n represents available data from all patients.

  • APACHE II, Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II; BMI, body mass index; CRP, C-reactive protein; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase.