Table 1

Summary of COVID-19 reinfection cases with confirmed genomic differences

PatientDate reportedAge/sexImmuno
compromised
Interval (days)Symptom severity*
(first episode)
Symptom severity
(second episode)
Negative PCR
test in between infections
Seroconversion after
initial
infection
Seroconversion after
second infection
Viral
clade
(first episode)
Viral
clade
(second episode)
RecoveredCountryReferences†
1May 2042/MNo51MildMildNot performedNot performedNot performedB.1.26B.1.26 but with several mutationsYesUSALarson et al, 2020
2June 2025/MNo48MildModerate‡YesNot performedYes20C20C with 11 SNP mutationsYesUSATillett et al, 2020
3June 2051/FNo120MildMildNot performedNot performedNot performedB.1.1AYesBelgiumVan Elslande et al, 2020
4July 2060/MNo140ModerateMildYesNot performedYes19B20AYesUSAGoldman et al, 2020
5July 2033/MNo142MildAsymptomaticYesYesYesD614 (V/19A;B.2)G614 (G20A, B.1)YesChinaTo et al12
6July 2046/MNo68MildMildYesNot performedYesB1.p9A.1.1YesEcuadorPrado et al, 2020
7July 2089/FYes59MildSevere‡Not performedNot performedNoN/A10 SNP mutationsNoThe NetherlandsMulder et al4
8July 2027/MNo66MildMildYesNot performedNoB.1B, 8 SNP mutationsYesIndiaShastri et al, 2020
9July 2031/MNo65AsymptomaticMild‡YesNot performedNoB.1.1B.1.1, 9 SNP mutationsYesIndiaShastri et al, 2020
10July 2027/MNo19AsymptomaticMild‡YesNot performedNot performedB.1.1B.1.1, 9 SNP mutationYesIndiaShastri et al, 2020
11July 2024/FNo55MildMildNot performedNot performedNoB.1.1B.1.1, 12 SNP mutationsYesIndiaShastri et al, 2020
12August 2047/F§N/A88MildMildNot performedNot performedNoD614G614YesQatarAbu-Raddad et al, 2020
13August 2027/M§N/A46MildMildNot performedNot performedNot performedD614G614YesQatarAbu-Raddad et al, 2020
14August 2042/M§N/A71MildMildNot performedNot performedNot performedD614G614YesQatarAbu-Raddad et al, 2020
15August 2027/M§N/A55MildMildNot performedNot performedNot performedD614G614YesQatarAbu-Raddad et al, 2020
16August 2025/MNo106AsymptomaticAsymptomaticYesNot performedNot performedN/A9 SNP mutationsYesIndiaGupta et al, 2020
17September 2028/FNo107AsymptomaticAsymptomaticYesNot performedNot performedN/A10 SNP mutationsYesIndiaGupta et al, 2020
  • *Symptom severity was classified as follows: severe: intensive care unit admission; moderate: supplemental oxygen with nasal cannula; mild; no oxygen support but other COVID-19 symptoms (which may include cough, rhinorrhea, sore throat, shortness of breath, change in taste or smell, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, chills, fatigue, and myalgias).

  • †See full citations in the online supplemental file.

  • ‡Worse symptoms at second infection compared with the first infection.

  • §Only age range was reported in this study, so an average number is taken, that is, 47 for range 45–49 years.

  • F, female; M, male; N/A, not applicable; SNP, single-nucleotide polymorphism.