Table 1

Sample population demographics by goal-striving stress (GSS) levels, JHS (2000–2004)

VariableEntire cohort
(n=2630)
Low GSS
(n=979)
Moderate GSS
(n=944)
High GSS
(n=707)
P value
RKFD (%)193 (7.34)70 (7.15)61 (6.46)62 (8.77)0.1972
eGFRvisit1 (mean±SD)98.25±17.4093.35±16.6198.76±16.63102.96±18.22<0.001*
eGFRvisit3 (mean±SD)88.40±21.0684.17±19.8989.19±20.7093.20±21.97<0.001*
eGFRvisit3–eGFRvisit1 (mean±SD)−9.85±15.32−10.17±15.11−9.57±14.61−9.76±16.480.6369
GSS (mean±SD)3.80±4.880.25±0.432.89±0.899.96±5.55<0.001*
Age (mean±SD)53.28±11.5358.04±10.5852.15±10.7948.21±11.23<0.001*
Females (%)1646 (62.59)613 (62.61)560 (59.32)473 (66.90)0.007*
Attended college (%)1874 (71.25)655 (66.91)708 (75.00)511 (72.28)<0.001*
Current smoker (%)291 (11.06)83 (8.48)97 (10.28)111 (15.70)<0.001*
Use alcohol (%)1305 (49.62)440 (44.94)477 (50.53)388 (54.88)0.002*
Poor physical activity health (%)1152 (43.80)472 (48.21)393 (41.63)287 (40.59)0.002*
Obese (%)1422 (54.07)535 (54.65)492 (52.12)395 (55.87)0.1419
Hypertension (%)452 (17.19)199 (20.33)155 (16.42)98 (13.86)<0.001*
Diabetes (%)461 (17.53)201 (20.53)150 (15.89)110 (15.56)<0.001*
Cardiovascular disease history (%)163 (6.20)82 (8.38)42 (4.45)32 (4.53)0.001*
Discrimination (1–4) (mean±SD)2.35±0.762.26±0.792.33±0.742.49±0.74<0.001*
  • P values were calculated using χ2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests as appropriate.

  • *Significant p values.

  • eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; JHS, Jackson Heart Study; RKFD, rapid kidney function decline.