Table 5

Comparison of clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19 with and without different comorbidities

HypertensionDiabetesCoronary heart diseaseChronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseArrhythmiaChronic renal failure
Yes (n=158)No (n=205)Yes (n=72)No (n=291)Yes (n=40)No (n=323)Yes (n=10)No (n=353)Yes (n=13)No (n=350)Yes (n=12)No (n=351)
Age68 (61–74)66 (57–74)*66 (61–73)67 (58–74)74 (68–81)66 (58–73)*67 (59–83)67 (59–74)75 (58–83)67 (59–74)59 (47–61)67 (60–74)*
Male84 (53.2%)102 (49.8%)45 (62.5%)141 (48.5%)*26 (65.0%)160 (49.5%)9 (53.2%)102 (49.8%)7 (53.8%)179 (51.1%)7 (58.3%)179 (51.0%)
Female74 (46.8%)103 (50.2%)27 (37.5%)150 (51.5%)*14 (35.0%)16 (50.5%)1 (46.8%)103 (50.2%)6 (46.2%)171 (48.9%)5 (41.7%)172 (49.0%)
Clinical symptoms at admission
 Fever89 (56.3%)142 (69.3%)*36 (50.0%)195 (67.2%)*21 (52.5%)210 (65.0%)7 (70.0%)224 (63.5%)7 (53.8%)224 (64.0%)2 (16.7%)229 (65.2%)*
 Cough104 (65.8%)144 (70.2%)48 (66.7%)200 (68.7%)28 (70.0%)220 (68.1%)7 (70.0%)241 (68.3%)9 (69.2%)239 (68.3%)4 (33.3%)244 (69.5%)*
 Sputum production34 (21.5%)48 (23.4%)15 (20.8%)67 (23.0%)7 (17.5%)75 (23.2%)4 (40.0%)78 (22.1%)5 (38.5%)77 (22.0%)1 (8.3%)81 (23.1%)
 Fatigue46 (29.1%)55 (26.8%)15 (20.8%)86 (29.6%)10 (25.0%)91 (28.2%)2 (20.0%)99 (28.0%)3 (23.1%)98 (28.0%)3 (25.0%)98 (27.9%)
 Chest tightness51 (32.2%)63 (30.7%)24 (33.3%)90 (30.9%)17 (42.5%)97 (30.0%)4 (40.0%)110 (31.2%)7 (53.8%)107 (30.6%)4 (33.3%)110 (31.3%)
 Wheezing51 (32.3%)62 (30.2%)22 (30.6%)91 (31.3%)12 (30.0%)101 (31.3%)4 (40.0%)109 (30.9%)6 (46.2%)107 (30.6%)0113 (32.2%)
 Dyspnea11 (7.0%)11 (5.4%)6 (8.3%)16 (5.5%)5 (12.5%)17 (5.3%)2 (20.0%)20 (5.7%)2 (15.4%)20 (5.7%)022 (6.3%)
 Sore throat8 (5.1%)13 (6.3%)3 (4.2%)18 (6.2%)2 (5.0%)19 (5.9%)1 (10.0%)20 (5.7%)2 (15.4%)19 (5.4%)1 (8.3%)20 (5.7%)
 Myalgia6 (3.8%)17 (8.3%)3 (4.2%)20 (6.9%)1 (2.5%)22 (6.8%)1 (10.0%)22 (6.2%)023 (6.6%)023 (6.6%)
 Diarrhea16 (10.1%)11 (5.4%)9 (12.5%)18 (6.2%)3 (7.5%)24 (7.4%)1 (10.0%)26 (7.4%)027 (7.7%)1 (8.3%)26 (7.4%)
 Headache6 (3.8%)5 (2.4%)2 (2.8%)9 (3.1%)011 (3.4%)011 (3.1%)011 (3.1%)011 (3.1%)
Clinical outcomes
 Discharge106 (67.1%)94 (45.9%)*45 (62.5%)155 (53.3%)23 (57.5%)177 (54.8%)7 (70.0%)193 (54.7%)7 (53.8%)193 (55.1%)8 (66.7%)192 (54.7%)
 Transfer47 (29.7%)109 (53.1%)*26 (36.1%)130 (44.7%)15 (37.5%)141 (43.7%)3 (30.0%)153 (43.3%)5 (38.5%)151 (43.2%)3 (25.0%)153 (43.6%)
 Death5 (3.2%)2 (1%)1 (1.4%)6 (2.1%)2 (5.0%)5 (1.5%)0 (3.2%)7 (2%)1 (7.7%)6 (1.7%)1 (8.3%)6 (1.7%)
 Length of hospital stay (days)17 (15–24)17 (15–21)17 (15–22)17 (15–24)17 (15–22)17 (15–24)17 (13–20)17 (15–23)16 (12–24)17 (15–23)17 (10–22)17 (15–24)
 Time from onset to admission (days)10 (7–15)10 (7–14)10 (7–17)10 (7–14)12 (7–18)10 (7–14)10 (3–16)10 (7–14)8 (5–14)10 (7–14)10 (7–18)10 (7–14)
 Time from onset to discharge (days)31 (25–39)29 (23–37)30 (22–37)31 (24–37)31 (23–40)30 (24–37)25 (20–32)30 (24–37)28 (23–32)31 (23–37)28 (23–42)30 (24–37)
 Time to cure (days)19.5 (17–25)18 (13–26)20 (14–26)19 (14–25)21 (15–26)19 (13–25)17 (14–26)19 (14–25)16 (10–26)19 (14–25)15 (10–21)19 (14–25)
  • Shapiro-Wilk test was used to test the normality of continuous data, continuous data normally distributed were expressed as mean±SD; continuous data non-normally distributed were presented as median (IQR). Levene’s test was used to test for homogeneity of variance. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the mean of two samples that were normally distributed and had equal variance. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the mean of two samples that were not normally distributed and had unequal variance. Categorical data were expressed by percentage and compared by the χ2 test.

  • *P<0.05 vs patients without this comorbidity.