Table 2

Comparison of clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with ordinary, severe, and critical COVID-19 with and without comorbidities

Patients with ordinary type of COVID-19 (n=793)Patients with severe type of COVID-19 (n=363)Patients with critical type of COVID-19 (n=124)
With comorbiditiesWithout comorbiditiesP valueWith comorbiditiesWithout comorbiditiesP valueWith comorbiditiesWithout comorbiditiesP value
Number300 (37.8%)493 (62.2%)212 (58.4%)151 (41.6%)88 (71.0%)36 (29.0%)
Age (years)65.5 (58–71)54 (40.5–64)0.00068 (61–74.7)66(55-74)0.04669(62-78)62 (52.5–73.5)0.014
Sex
 Male143 (47.7%)211 (42.8%)0.103118 (55.7%)68 (45.0%)0.02953 (60.2%)22 (61.1%)0.927
 Female157 (52.3%)282 (52.3%)94 (44.3%)83 (55.0%)35 (39.8%)14 (38.9%)
Admission vital signs
 Body temperature (°C)36.6 (36.5–36.8)36.7 (36.5–37.0)0.21636.6 (36.5–37.0)36.6 (36.7–37.2)0.08637.0 (36.5–37.8)37.1 (36.8–37.8)0.115
 Heart rate (beats/min)80 (78–89)80 (78–88)0.12980 (78.0–88.7)80 (76–85)0.15582 (78–96)95 (85–101)0.005
 Respiratory rate (breaths/min)20 (19–21)20 (19–20)0.03120 (19–22)20 (19–21)0.58621 (20–25)22 (20–28)0.674
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)135 (125–147)125 (120–134)0.000134 (124–147)127 (120–134)0.000134 (127–152)128 (119–137)0.004
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)80 (75–90)79 (70–82)0.00079 (72–85)78 (70–80)0.03680 (71–89)77 (70–87)0.265
Clinical symptoms at admission
 Fever183 (61.0%)359 (72.8%)0.000119 (56.1%)112 (74.2%)0.00061 (69.3%)31 (86.1%)0.040
 Cough189 (63.0%)331 (67.1%)0.133138 (65.1%)110 (72.8%)0.07370 (79.35%)25 (69.4%)0.228
 Sputum production41 (13.7%)93 (18.9%)0.03545 (21.2%)37 (24.5%)0.27125 (28.4%)10 (27.8%)0.943
 Fatigue86 (28.7%)154 (31.2%)0.24762 (29.2%)39 (25.8%)0.27626 (29.5%)11 (30.6%)0.911
 Chest tightness55 (18.3%)76 (15.4%)0.16570 (33.0%)44 (29.1%)0.25218 (20.5%)11 (30.6%)0.228
 Wheezing49 (16.3%)57 (11.6%)0.03664 (30.2%)49 (32.5%)0.36531 (35.2%)11 (30.6%)0.618
 Dyspnea22 (7.3%)17 (3.4%)0.01215 (7.1%)7 (4.6%)0.23313 (14.8%)7 (19.4%)0.521
 Myalgia15 (5.0%)27 (5.5%)0.45411 (5.2%)12 (7.9%)0.1985 (5.7%)5 (13.9%)0.128
 Sore throat24 (8.0%)40 (8.1%)0.53413 (6.1%)8 (5.3%)0.4624 (4.5%)4 (11.1%)0.177
 Diarrhea29 (9.7%)34 (6.9%)0.10419 (9.0%)8 (5.3%)0.1339 (10.2%)1 (2.8%)0.167
 Headache13 (4.3%)24 (4.9%)0.4377 (3.3%)4 (2.6%)0.4883 (3.4%)3 (8.3%)0.246
Clinical outcomes
 Discharge226 (75.3%)353 (71.6%)0.143135 (63.7%)65 (43.0%)0.00017 (19.3%)14 (38.9%)0.022
 Transfer72 (24.0%)139 (28.2%)0.11272 (34.0%)84 (56.2%)0.00024 (27.3%)10 (27.8%)0.954
 Death2 (0.7%)1 (0.2%)0.3215 (2.4%)2 (1.3%)0.38447 (53.4%)12 (33.3%)0.042
 Length of hospital stay15 (11.3–19)15 (11–18)0.01117 (15–24)17 (15–21)0.90615.5 (8.5–25.0)18 (12.5–26.5)0.102
 Time from onset to admission10 (7–15.7)10 (7–14)0.13110 (7–14)10 (7–14)0.1848 (7–14)8 (6.5–10.0)0.563
 Time from onset to discharge28 (22–36)25 (20–31)0.00030 (23–37)31 (24–37)0.85926 (18–39)29 (19–38.5)0.346
  • Shapiro-Wilk test was used to test the normality of continuous data; continuous data normally distributed were expressed as mean±SD; continuous data non-normally distributed were presented as median (IQR). Levene’s test was used to test for homogeneity of variance. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the mean of two samples that were normally distributed and had equal variance. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the mean of two samples that were not normally distributed and had unequal variance. Kruskal-Wallis was used to compare multiple samples. Categorical data were expressed by percentage and compared by the χ2 test.