Table 1

Characteristics of studies reporting the incidence of acute kidney injury in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2

StudyCountryLocationnSubjectAge* (y)Male (%)DM (%)HTN (%)Heart disease† (%)Lung disease‡ (%)Cancer (%)CKD (%)AKI (%)Mortality (%)OR of AKI for mortality (95% CI)
Arentz et al 27 USAWashington state21Confirmed COVID-19, critically ill705233.342.933.34819.1
RRT: 0%
Barrasa et al 28 SpainVictoria48Confirmed COVID-19, critically ill63.256191037012.5
Cao et al 29 ChinaWuhan102Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized545210.827.
Death with AKI: 15/17
Survived with AKI: 5/85
Chen et al 30 ChinaTongji Hospital113Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized62621734873111
Death with AKI: 28/115
Survived with AKI: 1/161
Du et al 31 ChinaWuhan179Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized57.654.218.432.416. (0.786 to 28.178)
Du et al 32 ChinaHannan and Wuhan Union Hospital85Deceased COVID-19, fatal cases, hospitalized65.872.922.437.611. (RRT 9.4%)100
Chen et al 33 ChinaJinyintan Hospital99Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized55.5681340113.1
RRT: 9%
Cheng et al 34 ChinaTongji Hospital701Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized6352.414.333.41.94.625
CRRT: 0%
16.16.34 (3.47 to 11.58)
Deng et al 35 ChinaWuhan225Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized54.555.511.726.17.711.43.68.9 (deceased with AKI 20/109, survived with AKI 0/116)48.4
Du et al 36 ChinaWuhan109Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized70.767.931.259.633.915.67.37.311 (RRT 11%)100
Guan et al 37 ChinaMulticenter1099Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized47.058.17.415.
RRT: 0.8%
Guo et al 38 ChinaSeventh Hospital187Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized58.548.71532.64.373.214.623
Huang et al 39 ChinaWuhan41Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized49.07320. (RRT 7%)15
Lei et al 40 ChinaSun Yet-Sen University20Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized43.250525500 (RRT 0%)0
Lian et al 41 ChinaZhejiang province788Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized45.851.67.2161. (RRT 0%)8.8
Ling et al 42 Hong KongMulticenter8Confirmed COVID-19, critically ill64.55025380002525 (RRT 25%)12.5
Liu et al 43 ChinaShenzhen12Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized53.76716.725.033.38.3016.716.7
RRT: –
Wang et al 44 ChinaZhongnan Hospital138Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized56.054.310.
RRT: 1.45%
Yang et al 45 ChinaJinyintan Hospital52Confirmed COVID-19, critically ill59.76717. (RRT 5%)
Death with AKI: 12/32
Survived with AKI: 3/20
Zhou et al 9 ChinaJinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital191Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized56.0621930831115 (RRT 5%)
In deceased cases: 27/54
In survived cases: 1/137
Shi et al 46 ChinaWuhan416Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized6449.314.430.548. (0.6 to 2.5)
Tang et al 47 ChinaWuhan73Confirmed COVID-19, critically ill6761.527.452.
Tu et al 48 ChinaWuhan174Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized7045.49.821.29.26.915.514.4
Wang et al 49 ChinaWuhan339Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized71491640.815.
Liu et al 50 ChinaHainan56Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized53.855. –17.85.4
Zhang et al 51 ChinaWuhan221Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalized5548.91024.4102.
  • *Mean or median.

  • †Including cardiovascular disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease or atrial fibrillation.

  • ‡Including chronic obstructive lung disease, asthma or interstitial lung disease.

  • AKI, acute kidney injury; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CRRT, continuous renal replacement therapy; DM, diabetes mellitus; HTN, hypertension; RRT, renal replacement therapy; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.