Table 1

Examples of peer mentoring models

Type of peer mentoring groupExamplesStrengthsWeaknesses
Formal mentoring programs
  • Association of American Medical Colleges

    • Leadership and Management Foundations for Academic Medicine and Science

    • Minority Faculty Leadership Development Seminar

    • Mid-Career Minority Faculty Leadership Seminar

    • Mid-Career Women Faculty Leadership Development Seminar

    • Graduate Medical Education Leadership Development Certificate Program

    • Leading Information Technology in Academic Medicine Program

  • Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM)

  • Brandeis C-Change Mentoring Leadership Institute, Early Career Women Faculty Leadership Development Seminar

  • Many programs at individual institutions (eg, Mayo Clinic and Emory University)

  • Multiple mentees

  • Opportunities for networking and sharing knowledge between or within institutions

  • Can include small groups and longer-term follow-up

  • Can target underserved populations

  • May not be very individualized

  • Travel and time commitment

  • May not continue after formal program

Programs within professional organizations
  • Endocrine Society

    • Women in Endocrinology

    • Future Leaders in Endocrinology

  • American Diabetes Association Women’s Interprofessional Network

  • American Heart Association Women’s Leadership Council

  • American College of Rheumatology

    • CARMA—Creating Adult Rheumatology Mentorship in Academia

    • AMIGO—The ACR/CARRA Mentoring Interest Group for Pediatric Rheumatologists

  • American College of Gastroenterology

    • Young Physician Leadership Scholars

  • American Gastroenterology Association

    • Future Leaders Program

    • FORWARD minority program

    • Women’s Leadership conference

  • American Thoracic Society

    • New Faculty Boot Camp

  • American Academy of Neurology

    • Emerging Leaders

    • Diversity Leadership

    • Women Leading Neurology

  • The American Society of Bone and Mineral Research

    • Women in Bone and Mineral Research Committee

  • Meet leaders in the field

  • Gain a national reputation

  • National representation

  • Well placed for sponsorship

  • Well positioned at national meeting

  • Resources for awards

  • Can target underserved populations

  • Large, less individualized

  • May be difficult to approach more personal topics

Programs for trainees
  • In-person

    • Endocrine Society Early Career Forum

    • American Diabetes Association Focus on Fellow

    • Endocrine Fellow Foundation Research Forum

    • American Gastroenterology Association

  • Online

    • American College of Rheumatology

    • American Association Study of Liver Disease

  • Hybrid

    • American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Trainees

    • Society of General Internal Medicine Student-Resident-Fellow Forum

    • Androgen Excess–Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

  • Multiple points of alignment: professional type, stage in training, supported by organization

  • Inclusive

  • May require application

  • May not persist once training complete

  • Large group

  • Limited time with more senior members

  • Level of commitment of members varies

Grant based
  • KL2 and K12 training grants

  • NIDDK K trainee program

  • Doris Duke Clinical Scientist Development Award

  • More personalized

  • Opportunities for networking and sharing knowledge

  • Inclusive

  • Limitation to grant recipients

  • Similar career stage

Social media
  • Closed Facebook groups

    • Physician Mom’s Group

    • Academic Research Moms

  • Twitter

  • Reddit

  • Doximity

  • KevinMD

  • LinkedIn

  • Professional listservs

  • Geographic diversity

  • Free

  • Accessible

  • Learn from others

  • Shared experiences

  • Easily solicit advice

  • No formal mentoring although arrangements can be made

  • Often less personal

  • Potential negative comments

Ad hoc peer mentoring relationships
  • Colleagues within a division or department

  • Interest groups within professional groups

  • Something in common that brings individuals together

  • Can be exclusive

  • No defined expectations

  • Narrow perspectives

Committed purposeful academic peer mentoring
  • Every Other Thursday (EOT)

  • ASPIRE: Accountability and Safe-space to Promote, Inspire, Recharge, and Empower

  • IMeRGE: Internal Medicine Research Group at Emory

  • SWIMS: Supporting Women in the Medical Sciences

  • Small group

  • Confidentiality ground rules promote open discussion

  • Varied backgrounds bring diversity

  • Customizable to group needs

  • Small size can limit diversity

  • Perception of exclusivity

  • No formal 1:1 mentoring

  • Time commitment

  • Limited to local members

  • This list is not intended to be comprehensive; it reflects a selection of experiences from our SWIMS group and a limited internet search.