Table 3

Comparison between MS, NMOSD, and MOG-Ab associated disease

MSNMOSDMOG-Ab
Approx. age at onset99–101 30s40s30s
Female: male9 69 93 3:19:11.3:1
Coexisting autoimmune disease94 RareCommonRare
Clinical Course100 Relapsing or progressiveRelapsingMonophasic or relapsing
ON69 94 99 102 Usually mild with good recovery
Bilateral simultaneous ON is rare
Long-segment involvement is rare
Usually severe with limited recovery
Bilateral simultaneous ON is common
Can be longitudinally extensive
Usually severe with good recovery
Bilateral simultaneous ON is very common
Can be longitudinally extensive
Transverse myelitis94 99 102 103 Short-segment and partial/peripherally locatedUsually LETM and centrally locatedLETM or short-segment; central involvement is common
Conus involvement can be characteristic
Brain lesions100 102 104 Lesions adjacent to the body of the lateral ventricle (especially inferior temporal lobe)
Ovoid lesion with perpendicular alignment to the lateral ventricle (ie, Dawson’s fingers)
Subcortical U-fiber lesions
Variable:
  • can appear normal and/or non-specific

  • hypothalamic, periaqueductal grey and area postrema lesions seen

Variable:
  • can appear normal and/or non-specific

  • can appear similar to ADEM

  • ‘fluffy’, that is, poorly demarcated T2-hyperintensities

CSF-specific OCBs37 69 88 92 93 100 Common (up to 95%)Less common (up to 30%)Uncommon (up to 12%)
  • ADEM, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; LETM, longitudinally-extensive transverse myelitis; MS, multiple sclerosis; NMO, neuromyelitis optica; OCBs, oligoclonal bands; ON, optic neuritis.