Table 4

Baseline characteristics of participants without and with prevalent diabetes at DHS

CharacteristicsWithout prevalent DMWith prevalent DMP value
Age, years43.5±9.950.4±8.8<0.001
Gender (male), %
 Non-Hispanic black47.265.2
 Non-Hispanic white3717.1
BMI, kg/m2 29.9±7.235.9±8.2<0.001
 Prevalent hypertension (%)33.772.2<0.001
 SBP, mm Hg125.8±17.6136.9±17.3<0.001
 DBP, mm Hg78.8±9.981.5±9.1<0.001
 Current smoker, %25.825.70.95*
 Current alcohol user, %73.451.4<0.001*
 Diuretics, %7.326.2<0.001
 ACEI, %15.240.6<0.001
 ARB, %7.530<0.001
 Dietary supplements, %24.317.10.03
Laboratory values
Magnesium, mg/dL2.08±0.171.96±0.20<0.001
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 99.4±20.3104.6±24.20.01
 ΔeGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 per year−0.6 (−2.3, 0.7)−2.0 (−3.8, –0.1)<0.001
 Urine ACR, mg/g2.7 (1.8–4.3)3.4 (1.9–8.1)<0.001
 Albumin, g/dL4.0±0.33.8±0.3<0.001
 Glucose, mg/dL91.9±11.7185.9±80.3<0.001
 Calcium, mg/dL9.2±0.49.3±0.30.73
 Phosphate, mg/dL3.2±0.53.3±0.60.07
 Sodium, mEq/L137.8±2.3136.5±2.8<0.001
 Potassium, mEq/L4.3±1.84.4±1.30.31
 Bicarbonate, mEq/L27.1±2.227.6±2.30.003
 iPTH, pg/mL37.3 (28.4, 49.6)34.6 (26.8, 51.2)0.19
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL180.1±36.8186.5±45.80.17
 HDL, mg/dL50.8±14.846.6±12.8<0.001
 CRP, mg/L2.4 (1.0, 5.7)6.8 (2.4, 14.3)<0.001
  • 2 Data are presented as mean±SD, median (25th, 75th percentile) or per cent for categorical variables.

  • eGFR was calculated according to theMDRD study equation. Microalbuminuria was calculated as ACR. Dietary supplements consisted of any combination or single treatment with Mg, calcium, active vitamin D and/or multivitamins. Conversion factors for units: phosphate in mg/dL to mmol/L, ×0.3229; HDL in mg/dL to mmol/L, x0.02586.

  • ACEI, ACE inhibitors; ACR, microalbumin/creatinine ratio; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blockers; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; CRP, C reactive protein; DHS, Dallas Heart Study; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; iPTH, intact parathyroid hormone.