Table 3

Characteristics of patients who had lumbar vertebral fractures identified by either VFA or lumbar spine radiograph without lumbar spine Z-score discrepancy by DXA scan

Highest lumbar spine (DXA)BMD Z-scoresVFAX-rayFractureTypeReferral diagnoses
L1L2L3L4 doneYesL1, L5Mild (grade 1) wedge fracture of L1, mild (grade 1) crush fracture of L5Recurrent multiple fractures
28−2.3−2.3−3.1−2.7−3.3YesYesL1–L5Moderate (grade 2) wedge fracture of L1–L2, mild (grade 1) wedge fracture of L3–L5Post heart transplant
312−2.0−2.2−2.5−2.0−2.8YesNoL1Mild (grade 1) wedge fracture of L1Opitz trigonocephaly C syndrome, vitamin D deficiency
413−1.2−1.4−1.5−1.2−1.7YesYesL2Mild (grade 1) biconcave fracture of L2Delayed puberty, short stature
514−1.8−1.8−2.8−2.8−2.5Not doneYesL1–L5Severe (grade 3) wedge fracture of L1, moderate (grade 2) wedge fracture of L2–L5Duchenne muscular dystrophy, short stature, chronic glucocorticoid use
616−1.4−2.2−1.4−2.1−2.4YesNot doneL2Mild (grade 1) wedge fracture of L2Complex neurodevelopmental syndrome, seizure, developmental delay, chronic phenytoin use
  • DXA, dual X-ray absorptiometry; VFA, vertebral fracture assessment.