Table 1

Participants’ demographics and clinical characteristics

Variables*All
n=425
LDG (–)
n=85
LDG (+)
n=340
P values
Age (years)57 (14)58 (14)57 (14)0.9107
Female, n (%)375 (88.2)75 (88.2)300 (88.2)1
BMI (kg/m2)23.4 (5.0)23.4 (4.7)23.4 (5.0)0.916
Disease duration (years)10 (13)
n=408
12 (13)
n=83
10 (13)
n=325
0.478
Symptom to diagnosis (years)2 (5)
n=408
1 (4)
n=83
2 (5)
n=325
0.336
Tea†, n (%)81 (19.1)17 (20.0)64 (18.8)0.805
Coffee†, n (%)79 (18.6)19 (22.4)60 (17.6)0.319
Vegetarian‡, n (%)23 (5.4)5 (5.9)18 (5.3)0.791
Anti-CCP (≥7 U/mL), n (%)287 (69.3)
n=414
51 (61.4)
n=83
236 (71.3)
n=331
0.082
RF (≥15 U/mL), n (%)284 (67.5)
n=421
57 (67.1)
n=85
227 (67.6)
n=336
0.930
ESR (mm/hour)16 (20)14 (18)17 (21)0.426
CRP (mg/L)2.8 (6.7)1.9 (4.2)3 (7.4)0.299
DAS28-ESR3.2 (1.6)
n=422
2.9 (1.7)
n=84
3.3 (1.6)
n=338
0.107
iPTH (pg/mL)57 (14)41.3 (23.3)39.9 (28.2)0.454
Vitamin D 25(OH) (ng/mL)20.9 (9.3)
n=332
22.0 (8.6)
n=71
20.8 (10.0)
n=261
0.679
Comorbidity, n (%)238 (56)41 (48.2)197 (57.9)0.107
bDMARD, n (%)74 (17.4)20 (23.5)54 (15.9)0.096
Osteoporosis¶,  n (%)109 (27.3)
n=400
18 (22.2)
n=81
91 (28.5)
n=319
0.2551
Current treatment**, n (%)62 (14.6)6 (7.1)56 (16.5)0.028
Fall in previous year, n (%)67 (16.4)
n=409
11 (13.3)
n=83
56 (17.2)
n=326
0.388
Fracture, n (%)116 (27.3)13 (15.3)103 (30.3)0.006
  • *All data are expressed as median (IQR).

  • †, regular daily drinker; ‡, more than 3 years; ¶, femoral neck T-score ≤ −2.5; **, receiving antiosteoporosis therapy; n, data available.

  • Anti-CCP, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies; bDMARDs, biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; BMD, bone mineral density; BMI, body mass index; CRP, C reactive protein; DAS28-ESR, disease activity score-28 joint-erythrocyte sedimentation rate; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; iPTH, intact parathyroid hormone; LDG, low-dose glucocorticoid; RF, rheumatoid factor.