Table 1

Overview of intervention studies which have investigated the effect of hypercaloric feeding on liver fat content

RefDesignSubjectsInterventionEnergy excessDurationChange in body massChange in liver fat
124 SG7 M
24.7±1.3 years
19–25 kg/m2a
StdD+Fru (1.5 g/kg)18%4 weeksNSDNSD
115 R/P16 M T2DM offspring (24.7±1.3 years) 19–25 kg/m2aversus 8M Con (24±1 years)
19–25 kg/m2a
StdD versus StdD+Fru (3.5 g/kg/FFM)35%7 daysT2DM offspring: ↑ 1.0 kgb*
Con: ↑ 0.6 kgb*
NSD between groups
T2DM off: ↑ 79%*
Controls: ↑ 76%*
NSD between groups
114 R/P32 M
18-50 yearsa
25.9–32.2 kg/m2c
StdD+Glu (25%TE) versus
Fru (25%TE)
25%2 weeksFru: ↑ 1.0±1.4 kg*
Glu: ↑ 0.6±1.0 kg*
NSD between groups
Fru: ↑ 24%b*
Glu: ↑ 26%b*
NSD between groups
116 R/C11 M
24.6±0.6 years
19–25 kg/m2a
StdD+Fru (3.5 g/kg/FFM) versus Glu (3.5 g/kg/FFM)35%7 daysFru: ↑ 0.6 kgb*
Glu: ↑ 1 kgb*
Fru: ↑ 52%±13%*
Glu: ↑ 58%±23%
NSD between groups
125 R/P20 M+F
30.5±2.0 years
25.9±0.5 kg/m2
StdD+Fru (150 g/day) versus Glu (150 g/day)600 kcal/day4 weeksGlu: ↑ 1.7±0.4 kg*
Fru: NSD
NSD in either group
128 R/P47 M+F
20–50 yearsa
26–40 kg/m2a
StdD+1 L/day of cola, semi-skimmed milk, diet cola, or waterCola: 430 kcal/day
Milk: 450 kcal/day
Diet-cola: N/A
Water: N/A
6 monthsNSD between groups
No comparisons made relative to baseline
Cola: ↑132%–143% compared with other gps.*
NSD between milk, diet-cola or water
129 SG16 M+F
54 yearsd (40–59 years)e
30.6±1.2 kg/m2
StdD+added sugars (‘candy diet’)1000 kcal/day3 weeks↑ 1.8±0.3 kg*↑ 27%*
133 R/P37 M+F
20-38 yearsa
18–27 kg/m2a
Habitual diet+high SFA or high-n-6 PUFA muffinsAdjusted to achieve 3% wt gain at follow-up7 weeksSFA: ↑ 1.6±0.96 kg
PUFA: ↑ 1.6±0.85 kg.
NSD between groups
SFA: ↑ 58%.b
PUFA: ↑53%b#
132 SG15 M
25±6.6 yearsf
23.4±2.5 kg/m2f
Habitual diet+280 g/day fat (800 mL cream)2632 kcal/day3 daysNSD in BMI
Body mass not presented
↑ 112%*b
134 R/C10 M
24±1 years
22.4±0.6 kg/m2
StdD+HF (+100% fat intakeb) versus HF+high-pro (+100% fat +>100% pro intakeb)HF: 30%b
HF+high-pro: 49%b
4 daysHF: NSD
HF+high-pro: ↑ 1.1 kga*
HF: ↑ 90%*
HF+high-pro: ↑ 68%b*#
139 R/P36 M
22 years (19–27)c
22.5 kg/m2 (19.5–24.5)c
Habitual diet+3 L/day HFHS or HS beverage, consumed 3x daily with meals or 2–3 hours after meal ingestion40%6 weeks↑ 2.5±1.7 kgg*
NSD between groups
NSD in gps consuming beverages with meals
HFHS ↑ 45%* and HS, ↑ 110%*when consumed between meals
NSD in ‘between meals’ groups
117 P30 M
23.9±0.4 years
22.6±0.2 kg/m2
StdD+Fru (3.5 g/kg/FFM), SFA (+30% TE), versus StdD+Fru+ SFA (3.5 g/kg/FFM and +30% TE)Fru: 35%
SFA: 30%
Fru+SFA: 65%
7 days↑ 0.3±0.1 kgg
NSD between groups
Fru: ↑ 16%*
SFA: ↑ 86%*
Fru+SFA: ↑ 133%*#
135 R/C9 M
23.3±0.9 years
22.6±0.5 kg/m2
StdD+high Fru (3 g/kg)+placebo (6.6 g/day maltodextrin) versus high-Fru (3 g/kg)+EAA (20.3 g/day)High-Fru+placebo: 36%b
High-Fru+EAA: 38%b
6 daysNSDHigh-Fru+placebo: ↑ 115%*b
High-Fru+EAA: ↑ 81%b*#
  • Subject data presented as mean±SEM unless otherwise stated.

  • a Inclusion criteria or estimated range within which all participants are included.

  • b Estimated from table/graph.

  • c Range.

  • d Median.

  • e IQR.

  • f SD.

  • g Pooled data.

  • *Significant effect of intervention (p< 0.05) according to the manuscript.

  • # Significant difference between groups (p< 0.05) according to the manuscript.

  • BMI, body mass index; C, crossover; EAA, essential amino acids; F, Female, T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; FFM, fat-free mass; Fru, fructose; Glu, glucose; HF, high fat; HFHS, high fat and high sugar; HS, high sugar; M, male; N/A, not available; NSD, no significant difference; P, parallel groups; Pro, protein; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids; R, randomised; Ref, reference; SFA, saturated fatty acids; SG, single group; StdD, standardised diet; TE, total energy.