Table 1

Summary of characteristics of included studies

First author (year)Study designIntervention groupsIntervention protocolNumber of patientsMean age (year)Male (%)Immunosuppressive therapyLength of follow-ups
Bessa (2016)25 RCTPharmaceutical carePharmacist's contribution to the care of individuals to optimize medicines use and improve health outcomes6245.859.40Tacrolimus, prednisolone, mycophenolate sodium, or azathioprine3 months
ControlNR62
Garcia (2015)32 RCTContinuing educationContinuing education554656.40Tacrolimus—92.7%
Cyclosporine—1.8%
Mycophenolate—81.8%
Azathioprine—16.4%
Prednisone—100%
12 months
ControlStandard care5649.2962.50Tacrolimus—94.6%
Cyclosporine—0%
Mycophenolate—80.4%
Azathioprine—21.4%
Prednisone—100%
12 months
Joost (2014)31 ProspectiveIntensified care groupEducational behavior and technique intervention355177.00Cyclosporine A: 6 (17%)
Tacrolimus: 29 (83%)
Mycophenolic acid—sodium: 7 (20%)
Mycophenolic acid—mofetil: 28 (80%)
Steroids withdrawal within the first 8 days: 8 (23%)
1 year
ControlStandard care395462.00Cyclosporine A: 7 (18%)
Tacrolimus: 32 (82%)
Mycophenolic acid—sodium: 8 (21%)
Mycophenolic acid—mofetil: 31 (79%)
Steroids withdrawal within the first 8 days: 7 (18%)
Chisholm-Burns (2013)28 RCTIntervention groupBehavior contract intervention7652.7856.60Cyclosporine—8 (10.5%)
Tacrolimus—68 (89.5%)
15 months
ControlStandard treatment7451.3255.40Cyclosporine—7 (9.5%)
Tacrolimus—67 (90.5%)
McGillicuddy (2013)29 RCTmHealth interventionmHealth system with reminder via smartphone942.4444.40NR3 months
ControlStandard care1057.670.00
Russell (2011)27 RCTContinuous self-improvementContinuous self-improvement intervention85550.00NR6 months
ControlAttention control management74442.90
Chisholm-Burns (2001)28 RCTWith clinical pharmacist interactionClinical pharmacist–patient interaction over the telephone1249.275.00Cyclosporine—8 (10.5%)
Tacrolimus—68 (89.5%)
1 year
ControlNA12Cyclosporine—7 (9.5%)
Tacrolimus—67 (90.5%)
Fennell (1994)30 ProspectiveFamily-based interventional programFamily-based interventional program with booklet and calendar141257.10Azathioprine and Prednisone
Cyclosporine
NR
ControlStandard care1560.00
  • NR, not reported; RCT, randomized controlled trial.