Table 1

Descriptive characteristics of the available pharmacoepidemiological studies evaluating the impact of testosterone treatment on forthcoming overall mortality or myocardial infarction

StudyAge (years) mean/rangen (cases/controls)Follow-up (weeks)Diabetes (%)Diagnosis of hypogonadismStudy designAdjusted overall mortalityAdjusted acute myocardial infarction
Shores et al,28 201262.1398/6338138TT <250 ng/dL (8.7 nmol/L)T treatment vs no treatmentNA
Finkle et al,27 201354.355 593/141 03114018.9NATTh prescription vs PDE5i prescriptionNA
Muraleedharan et al,29 201345–5964/17416.5100TT <300 ng/dL (10.4 nmol/L)T treatment vs no treatmentNA
Vigen et al,25 201363.41223/748611055.3TT <300 ng/dL (10.4 nmol/L)T treatment vs no treatment↑*↑*
Baillargeon et al,30 201466 or older6355/19 06518216.3NATTh prescription vs no TTh prescriptionNA
Eisenberg et al,31 201554.4284/225520NANATTh prescription vs no TTh prescriptionNA
Etminan et al,32 201570.430 066/120 2641450.3NATTh prescription vs no TTh prescriptionNA
Ramasamy et al,26 201574.3153/64191NATT <300 ng/dL (10.4 nmol/L)T treatment vs no treatmentNA
Sharma et al,33 201566.260 632/21 38030430.6TT lower than the local laboratory reference rangeT treatment vs no treatment↓§↓§
Tan et al,34 201520–8619 968/821 7257231.3TT <350 ng/dL (12.0 nmol/L)TTh prescription vs no TTh prescriptionNA
Maggi et al,35 201659.1759/24915628.7TT lower than the local laboratory reference rangeT treatment vs no treatment
Wallis et al,36 201665 or older10 311/28 02926034.3NATTh prescription vs no TTh prescriptionNA
  • *Composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke.

  • †Normalized treated versus untreated.

  • ↓ reduced risk; ↑ increased risk; ↔ unchanged risk.

  • NA, not available; T, testosterone; TT, total testosterone.