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LECT-2 amyloidosis: what do we know?
  1. Baldeep Kaur Mann1,
  2. Janpreet Singh Bhandohal1,
  3. Everardo Cobos2,
  4. Chandrika Chitturi1,
  5. Sabitha Eppanapally1
  1. 1Internal Medicine, Kern Medical Center, Bakersfield, California, USA
  2. 2Medicine, Kerm Medical, Bakersfield, California, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Baldeep Kaur Mann, Internal Medicine, Kern Medical Center, Bakersfield, CA 93306, USA; baldeep.sippi{at}gmail.com

Abstract

Amyloidosis is a rare group of diseases characterized by abnormal folding of proteins and extracellular deposition of insoluble fibrils. It can be localized to one organ system or can have systemic involvement. The kidney is the most common organ to be involved in systemic amyloidosis often leading to renal failure and the nephrotic syndrome. The two most common types of renal amyloidosis are immunoglobulin light chain-derived amyloidosis (AL) and reactive amyloidosis (AA). A novel form of amyloidosis (ALECT2) derived from leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 (LECT-2) and primarily involving the kidneys was first described by Benson et al in 2008. The liver was subsequently identified as the second most common organ involved in ALECT2 amyloidosis. LECT-2 is a unique protein that can form amyloid deposits even in its unmutated form. Patients with ALECT2 present with minimal proteinuria in contrast to other forms of amyloidosis especially AL and AA. They may present with slightly elevated serum creatinine. Nephrotic syndrome and hematuria are rare. ALECT2 can be found in association with other types of amyloidosis as well as malignancies or autoimmune diseases. ALECT2 may be confused with amyloidosis associated with light and heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy if the immunofluorescence is positive with anti-light chain and anti-AA sera. The other organs involved are the duodenum, adrenal gland, spleen, prostate, gall bladder, pancreas, small bowel, parathyroid gland, heart, and pulmonary alveolar septa, but consistently uninvolved organs included brain and fibroadipose tissue. A renal biopsy along with characteristic features found on immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry is diagnostic of ALECT2. ALECT2 should be suspected when all markers for AL and AA are negative. Proper diagnosis of ALECT2 can determine need for supportive care versus more aggressive interventions.

  • amyloidosis
  • kidney failure
  • chronic

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Footnotes

  • Contributors All authors have contributed to the manuscript and agreed with the final version of the manuscript. The final authorship contribution statement is as follows: BKM and JB are credited with substantial contribution to design the work, literature review of all the sections discussed, revision of critically important intellectual content, and final content writing. EC contributed to the initiation of the idea, revision of critically important intellectual content, and agreement of accountability for all parts of the work. CC and SE contributed to revision of the manuscript and agreement of accountability for all parts of the work.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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