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Exploring the appropriate dose of nebulized hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis: a dose–response meta-analysis
  1. Jilei Lin1,
  2. Yin Zhang2,
  3. Anchao Song3,
  4. Linyan Ying4,
  5. Jihong Dai4
  1. 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
  2. 2Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
  3. 3School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
  4. 4Department of Respiratory Disease, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, Chongqing, China
  1. Correspondence to Dr Jilei Lin, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; jilei_lin{at}163.com

Abstract

Nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) has gathered increasing attention in bronchiolitis. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between the dose of nebulized HS and the effects on bronchiolitis. Five electronic databases—PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ISRCTN—were searched until May 2021. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effect of HS on bronchiolitis were included. A total of 35 RCTs met the eligibility criteria. HS nebulization may shorten the length of stay (LOS) in hospital (mean difference −0.47, 95% CI −0.71 to –0.23) and improve the 24-hour, 48-hour, and 72-hour Clinical Severe Score (CSS) in children with bronchiolitis. The results showed that there was no significant difference between 3% HS and the higher doses (>3%) of HS in LOS and 24-hour CSS. Although the dose–response meta-analysis found that there may be a linear relationship between different doses and effects, the slope of the linear model changed with different included studies. Besides, HS nebulization could reduce the rate of hospitalization of children with bronchiolitis (risk ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.98), while the trial sequential analysis indicated the evidence may be insufficient and potentially false positive. This study showed that nebulized HS is an effective and safe therapy for bronchiolitis. More studies are necessary to be conducted to evaluate the effects of different doses of HS on bronchiolitis.

  • respiration disorders
  • respiratory tract diseases
  • lung diseases
  • pulmonary disease
  • chronic obstructive

Data availability statement

All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.

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Data availability statement

All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.

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Footnotes

  • Contributors JL is responsible for concept and design, data searching, inclusion and exclusion of studies, data analysis, and draft of the manuscript. YZ and AS are responsible for data extraction, assessment of methodological quality, and data analysis. LY is responsible for data searching and assessment of methodological quality. JD is responsible for the assessment of methodological quality and revision of articles. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

  • Funding The authors thank the Youth Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81700017).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.

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