This study aimed to explore the protective effect of Shenfu on the hemodynamics and gut integrity in a porcine model of hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in 32 domestic pigs with a rapid bleeding via the arterial sheath to a mean arterial pressure of 40 mm Hg within 10 min. Animals with hemorrhagic shock were then randomly assigned into the negative control group (n=8), receiving neither blood transfusion nor drug treatment; the blood transfusion group, in which animals were given blood transfusion alone; the saline group, in which animals were blood transfused and resuscitated with saline (3 mL/kg); and the Shenfu group, in which animals received blood transfusion and resuscitation with Shenfu (3 mL/kg). Blood tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-ɑ) and interleukin-6 were measured using ELISAs. Tissue levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca++ATPase, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) were determined using respective quantitation kits. Fluid resuscitation with Shenfu significantly improved HR, CI, and MAP of pig with hemorrhagic shock, which was accompanied with mitigation of tissue damages in intestinal epithelium. Blood TNF-ɑ was reduced in the Shenfu group. Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 expression in intestinal tissues were elevated and decreased, respectively, in pigs treated with Shenfu. Notably, treatment with Shenfu suppressed oxidative stress markers MDA, MPO, and FABP2 in the intestine. Oppositely, SOD, Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca++ATPase levels in intestinal tissues were promoted by Shenfu treatment. Shenfu demonstrates significant protective effect on the hemodynamics and gut epithelium of pigs with hemorrhagic shock.
- cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Data availability statement
Data are available upon reasonable request.
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Contributors YL and CL contributed to the conception and design of the study; WY and MZ contributed to the acquisition of data; JW and QZ performed the experiments; HQ and ZL contributed to the analysis of data; YL wrote the manuscript; all authors reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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