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Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: definition, pathophysiology, clinical spectrum, insights into acute and long-term management
  1. Mahesh Gajendran1,
  2. Joshua Sifuentes2,
  3. Mohammad Bashashati2,
  4. Richard McCallum3
  1. 1Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, Paul L Foster School of Medicine, El Paso, Texas, USA
  2. 2Department of Gastroenterology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, Paul L Foster School of Medicine, El Paso, Texas, USA
  3. 3Department of Gastroenterology, Center for Neurogastroenterology and GI Motility, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, Paul L Foster School of Medicine, El Paso, Texas, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Mahesh Gajendran, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso Paul L Foster School of Medicine, El Paso, TX 79911, USA; mahesh.gajendran{at}ttuhsc.edu

Abstract

Although cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) was first reported more than 15 years ago, it still remains an unfamiliar clinical entity among physicians worldwide. CHS is categorized by Rome IV classification as a functional gastroduodenal disorder. It is characterized by stereotypical episodic vomiting in the setting of chronic, daily cannabis use, with cycles decreasing by the cessation of cannabis. CHS is also associated with abdominal pain reduced by hot baths and showers with comparative well-being between attacks. Thus, its clinical presentation resembles ‘classic’ cyclic vomiting syndrome, but eliciting a cannabis history is crucial in diagnosing this entity. In acute attacks, parenteral benzodiazepines are very effective. For prevention and long-term management, tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline are the mainstay of therapy requiring doses in the range of 50–200 mg/d to achieve symptom control. In addition, counseling to achieve marijuana cessation, accompanied by antianxiety medications, is necessary for sustaining clinical outcomes. Once the patient is in remission and off marijuana for a period of 6–12 months, then tapering the dose of amitriptyline can be implemented, with the goal of no therapy being achieved in the majority of patients over time. With the legalization of marijuana in many states, CHS will become an increasingly prevalent clinical entity, so educating about CHS is an important goal, particularly for emergency department physicians who generally first encounter these patients.

  • cannabinoids
  • vomiting
  • abdominal pain

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Footnotes

  • Contributors MG: conceptualization, drafting and critical revision of the manuscript. JS, MB: substantial revision of the manuscript. RMC: conceptualization, substantial revision of the manuscript, supervision. All authors approved the submitted version. All authors agreed both to be personally accountable for the author’s own contributions and to ensure that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work, even ones in which the author was not personally involved.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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