Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. In 2021, the estimated number of new breast cancer cases was 281 550 and about 43 500 women died from metastatic breast cancer (mBC). For women aged 20–59 years, mBC remains the leading cause of cancer death and is, therefore, an important public health concern. Only 5% of women initially present with metastatic disease. Approximately 20% of patients presenting with local or locoregional disease progress to mBC despite adjuvant therapy. Inspite of all the medicosurgical advancements, the overall prognosis for patients diagnosed with mBC remains poor, with median overall survival of approximately 31 months, although this varies based on tumor biology. In recent years, there has been significant progress in developing immunotargeted therapies such as antihuman epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (anti-HER2) or check point inhibitors that confirmed to have dramatically improve the prognosis of mBC, a historically unfavorable disease subset. Even with the major progress that has been made in understanding the biology of BC, challenges such as resistance frequency to therapies, unknown efficacy, concerns for safety of drug combination and toxicities still remain high. Therefore, a new targeted and more selective treatment approaches are the need of the hour. In this review, we aim to outline the most recently approved medications in treatment of Her2-positive and triple-negative breast cancers.
- drugs, investigational
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Contributors AP and SRG conceptualized, prepared the original draft, and finalized the article. AP and CJ supervised, reviewed, and edited the article. SG reviewed and edited the final version of the article.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.