Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Risk associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria for PAD among patients with type 2 diabetes


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is significantly associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in some studies, but data on the association of the risk of PAD across a broad range of kidney function in patients with type 2 diabetes are limited. Between October 17, 2013 and February 7, 2015, all consecutive outpatients with type 2 diabetes underwent ankle-brachial index (ABI) examination. We investigated the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) with the risk of PAD. A total of 1254 patients were cross-classified into 12 groups based on ACR category (normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria) and eGFR stage (≥90, 60–89, 30–59 and <30 mL/min/1.73 m2). Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of eGFR and ACR with PAD. Within each ACR category, a lower eGFR stage was associated with PAD. Similarly, within each eGFR group, a higher ACR category was also associated with PAD. The OR for PAD was highest in patients with eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and macroalbuminuria (OR 14.42, 95% CI 4.60 to 45.31) when compared with the reference group of subjects with eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2 and normoalbuminuria. Our study found that cross-classification of eGFR with ACR revealed a more comprehensive association with risk of PAD than eGFR or ACR alone.

  • peripheral arterial disease
  • diabetic nephropathies
  • diabetes complications

Data availability statement

The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.