Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is significantly associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in some studies, but data on the association of the risk of PAD across a broad range of kidney function in patients with type 2 diabetes are limited. Between October 17, 2013 and February 7, 2015, all consecutive outpatients with type 2 diabetes underwent ankle-brachial index (ABI) examination. We investigated the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) with the risk of PAD. A total of 1254 patients were cross-classified into 12 groups based on ACR category (normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria) and eGFR stage (≥90, 60–89, 30–59 and <30 mL/min/1.73 m2). Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of eGFR and ACR with PAD. Within each ACR category, a lower eGFR stage was associated with PAD. Similarly, within each eGFR group, a higher ACR category was also associated with PAD. The OR for PAD was highest in patients with eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and macroalbuminuria (OR 14.42, 95% CI 4.60 to 45.31) when compared with the reference group of subjects with eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2 and normoalbuminuria. Our study found that cross-classification of eGFR with ACR revealed a more comprehensive association with risk of PAD than eGFR or ACR alone.
- peripheral arterial disease
- diabetic nephropathies
- diabetes complications
Data availability statement
The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.
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C-FP and S-MC contributed equally.
Contributors Conceptualization, C-FP; data curation, M-CT, W-TL and Y-HZ; formal analysis, K-CL; methodology, S-MC; project administration, M-CT; resources, K-CL and M-CT; software, W-TL; supervision, C-CL; validation, Y-HZ; writing—original draft, C-FP and S-MC; Writing—review and editing, C-CL.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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