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Haplotypes of (−794(CATT)5–8/−173G>C) MIF gene polymorphisms and its soluble levels in basal cell carcinoma in western Mexican population
  1. Elizabeth Guevara-Gutiérrez1,
  2. María José Castro-Jonguitud1,
  3. Susana Elizabeth De la Torre-Flores1,
  4. José Francisco Muñoz-Valle2,
  5. Alberto Tlacuilo-Parra3,
  6. Francisco Javier Salazar-Torres1,
  7. Yeminia Valle2,
  8. Jorge Ramón Padilla-Gutiérrez2,
  9. Diana Emilia Martínez-Fernández1,
  10. Emmanuel Valdés-Alvarado2
  1. 1 Instituto Dermatológico de Jalisco "Dr. José Barba Rubio", Secretaría de Salud Jalisco, Zapopan, Jalisco, México
  2. 2 Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico
  3. 3 División de Investigación, Unidad Médica de Alta Especialidad (UMAE), Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente, IMSS, Guadalajara Jalisco, México
  1. Correspondence to Dr Emmanuel Valdés-Alvarado, Departamento de Biología Molecular y Genómica, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara 44340, Mexico; emmanuel634{at}


Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common dermatological neoplasms in Caucasian populations. In Mexico, a prevalence of 3.9 per 1000 habitants is estimated. Recently, the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been related to different types of cancer. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the genetic association of haplotypes of [-794(CATT)5-8/-173G>C]MIF gene polymorphisms and its soluble levels in BCC. A total of 360 individuals were recruited for the study, that is, 180 of the total amounts were patients with BCC histologically confirmed and the remaining 180 individuals were identified as control subjects (CS). Both polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR and PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), and MIF serum levels were measured by ELISA kit. A borderline difference was found between the 55 genotype and the susceptibility to BCC (5.6% vs 1.7% in BCC and CS, respectively, OR=3.7 and p=0.04). Furthermore, the haplotype 7G showed a significant association with BCC (p=0.02, OR=1.99). Concerning MIF soluble levels, patients with BCC showed a media of 2.1 ng/mL and CS showed 4.4 ng/mL, the comparison between groups was significant (p<0.01). Our findings suggest that the 55 genotype and the haplotype 7G are associated with the susceptibility to BCC; furthermore, a significant difference was found between MIF soluble levels in both study groups.

  • carcinoma
  • polymorphism
  • genetic

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  • Contributors This project was performed with the substantial participation of every author listed. Each author developed an important function in the whole process. Specifically, EG-G, AT-P, JFM-V, and EV-A conceived of the presented idea. MJC-J, SEDT-F, and DEM-F developed the theory and analyzed of the data. EG-G, MJC-J, SEDT-F, AT-P, and FJS-T were the medical doctors who diagnosed and enrolled the patients at hospital. YV, JRP-D, DEM-F, and EV-A performed the molecular analysis of the patients' samples. JFM-V, EV-A, and EG-G supervised the findings of this work. All authors discussed the results and contributed to the final manuscript. EV-A wrote the manuscript with support from EG-G, AT-P, YV, JRP-G, and DEM-F.

  • Funding This project was funded by the Mexican Government through the program PODREP 2018, F-PROMEP-38/Rev-04.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval This study obtained ethical approval from Dirección General de Salud Publica (42/IDJ-JAL/2016).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.