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Emerging clinical scientist paradigm: a call for spectrum recognition in team science
  1. Gailen D Marshall
  1. Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, USA
  1. Correspondence to Professor Gailen D Marshall, Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, USA; gmarshall{at}

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Team science1—what a concept! To many, the idea that a group of scientists can work together on a common problem and seek collective answers leading to success seems almost intuitive. Yet the practicality and value of the concept is only now beginning to be fully recognized. Part of this may stem from classical training moors where basic scientists talk among themselves but seldom to clinical trialists who talk among themselves but not much to population scientists. And the nascent field of implementation science is in its relative infancy as a formal discipline. This creates a conundrum because relatively few translational scientists have cross-training between disciplines and, in many cases, have little idea of the methodologies or interpretation of data generated by these different research groups. For all of these reasons and more, a broader approach to training and interaction between physician scientists with diverse clinical and research backgrounds to give due consideration for the spectrum of translational science is desperately needed.

The translational research continuum has expanded well past the traditional “bench-to-bedside” paradigm that has been used for decades.2 Currently, the paradigm is designed to engage research and development of a therapeutic entity from basic (“bench”) research (T0) that aims to define normal or pathologic physiological mechanisms that may become therapeutic targets. Preclinical animal models (T1) are designed to demonstrate in vivo therapeutic activity and various stages of clinical (“bedside”) trials (T2) seeking to verify adequate safety and efficacy properties of the therapeutic agent that may lead to FDA approval.3 The relatively new component of translational research called implementation science (T3) studies methods and potential obstacles to the successful utility of the targeted therapy in the population of interest.4 The final stage (T4) is population (“curbside”) research where the impact of the therapy on health …

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  • Contributors GDM is the sole contributor.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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