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Galectin-3 levels and the prediction of atrial high-rate episodes in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy
  1. Gokhan Aksan1,
  2. Ahmet Yanık1,
  3. Osman Can Yontar1,
  4. Ömer Gedikli2,
  5. Ugur Arslan1,
  6. Korhan Soylu2
  1. 1 Cardiology, Samsun Education and Research Hospital, Samsun, Turkey
  2. 2 Cardiology, Ondokuz Mayis University Faculty of Medicine, Samsun, Turkey
  1. Correspondence to Dr Osman Can Yontar, Cardiology, Samsun Education and Research Hospital, Samsun, Turkey; drcanyontar{at}


Galectin-3 is an inflammation biomarker associated with atrial remodeling which plays a role in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). Atrial high-rate episode (AHRE) is related to development of clinically documented AF and stroke. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between the presence of AHRE and the coronary sinus (CS) serum sampling of galectin-3 levels in the long-term follow-up of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) patients. A total of 108 consecutive CRT patients were included prospectively in the study. AHREs were defined as atrial tachyarrhythmia episodes lasting at least 6 min with atrial rate >190 beats/min detected by cardiac implantable electronic device. CS blood samples were drawn from the CS guiding catheter to perform galectin-3 measurements. Galectin-3 levels were measured via ELISA. During a mean follow-up 12.6±4.9 months, AHRE was observed in 31 (28.7%) patients and not observed in 77 (72.3%) patients. CS galectin-3 levels were significantly higher in patients with AHRE than those without AHRE (18.09±2.62 vs 13.17±3.17, respectively, p<0.001). Moreover, CS galectin-3 levels showed significant positive correlation with percent of time spent in total AHRE (r=0.436, p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that left atrium (LA) volume and CS galectin-3 levels were significant and independent predictors for AHRE (OR=1.127, 95% CI: 1.045 to 1.216; p=0.002, OR=1.799, 95% CI: 1.388 to 2.330; p<0.001, respectively). In this study, we determined that high CS galectin-3 levels were a predictor for the development of AHRE in CRT patients.

  • arrhythmias
  • cardiac
  • atrial fibrillation
  • heart failure

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  • Contributors Conception and design: GA, AY, OCY. Data collection and processing: GA, AY, OCY, UA. Analysis and interpretation: GA, UA, KS, ÖG. Literature review: GA, ÖG, UA, KS. Writer: GA. Critical review: AY, UA, ÖG, OCY, KS.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval This study was approved by the Samsun Education and Research Hospital ethics committee (approval number: GOKA/2017/9/7). The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Informed consent was obtained from all patients.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available on reasonable request.

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