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Alzheimer’s disease: many failed trials, so where do we go from here?
  1. Allison Bethanne Reiss1,
  2. Amy D Glass1,
  3. Thomas Wisniewski2,
  4. Benjamin Wolozin3,
  5. Irving H Gomolin1,
  6. Aaron Pinkhasov4,
  7. Joshua De Leon1,
  8. Mark M Stecker5
  1. 1 Medicine, NYU Long Island School of Medicine and NYU Winthrop Hospital, Mineola, New York, USA
  2. 2 Departments of Neurology, Pathology and Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
  3. 3 Departments of Pharmacology and Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  4. 4 Department of Psychiatry, NYU Winthrop Hospital, Mineola, New York, USA
  5. 5 Neurology, UCSF San Francisco/Fresno, Fresno, California, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Allison Bethanne Reiss, Medicine, NYU Long Island School of Medicine and NYU Winthrop Hospital, Mineola, New York, USA; Allison.Reiss{at}


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder associated with relentlessly progressive cognitive impairment and memory loss. AD pathology proceeds for decades before cognitive deficits become clinically apparent, opening a window for preventative therapy. Imbalance of clearance and buildup of amyloid β and phosphorylated tau proteins in the central nervous system is believed to contribute to AD pathogenesis. However, multiple clinical trials of treatments aimed at averting accumulation of these proteins have yielded little success, and there is still no disease-modifying intervention. Here, we discuss current knowledge of AD pathology and treatment with an emphasis on emerging biomarkers and treatment strategies.

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • plaque, amyloid
  • MRI
  • cognition
  • biomedical research

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  • Contributors All the authors have read and approved this article. Idea and concept: ABR, BW and MMS. Drafting of the manuscript: ABR, AP, IHG and TW. Critical intellectual contribution, figure drawing and manuscript editing: ADG and JDL.

  • Funding This work was supported by The Alzheimer's Foundation of America Award (AWD00004772).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Brief summary data are preliminary and available upon request.

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