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Risk factors concerning complications following permanent pacemaker implantation for patients on antithrombotic therapy: a cohort study
  1. Mª Reyes Carrión-Camacho1,
  2. José Manuel Molina-Doñoro2,
  3. José Rafael González-López3
  1. 1 Clinical Management Unit-Anesthesiology and Resuscitation, Cardiac Surgery, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Seville, Spain
  2. 2 Emergency Medicine, Hospital Universitario Virgen de Valme, Seville, Spain
  3. 3 Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Physiotherapy and Podology, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain
  1. Correspondence to Dr Mª Reyes Carrión-Camacho, Clinical Management Unit-Anesthesiology and Resuscitation, Cardiac Surgery, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Seville, Spain; mariareyescarrioncamacho{at}


The objective of this study was to identify the complications and associated factors presented by patients after pacemaker implantation, according to a regimen of antithrombotic therapy or without it. This is an analytical observational study on a prospective cohort of 310 consecutive patients with a permanent pacemaker implanted, included from January 1 to December 31, 2014 from 1 single center. The follow-up was conducted on 310 patients for 6 months. 239 patients (77%) received antithrombotic therapy at the time of the pacemaker implantation. 20.8% of complications are presented in patients without anticoagulant therapy, 80.8% of them being minor ones. In the case of patients with anticoagulant therapy, 30.3% of the complications are major ones. Factors associated with major complications were contusion (OR 2; 95% CI 1 to 3.8; p=0.049), and minor complications, arm immobilization >24 hours (p=<0.001) and contusion (p=0.002). This study found an increase in the overall risk and complications that can occur when implanting a permanent pacemaker in patients with antithrombotic therapy based on the time of immobilization and contusions after the implantation.

  • anticoagulants
  • arrhythmias, cardiac
  • postoperative period
  • cardiology
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  • Contributors Conceptualization: JRGL. Methodology: MRCC and JRGL. Validation: MRCC, JMMD and JRGL. Formal analysis: MRCC, JMMD and JRGL. Investigation: MRCC. Data curation: MRCC. Writing–original draft preparation: MRCC and JRGL. Writing–review and editing: MRCC, JMMD and JRGL.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval The investigation complies with the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki, and the protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the ‘Virgen del Rocío’ University Hospital (2013PI/152).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information. The supplementary data are available statement from email address:

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