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Elevated serum IL-35 levels in rheumatoid arthritis are associated with disease activity
  1. Yuxuan Li1,
  2. Lutian Yao2,
  3. Siyan Liu1,
  4. Jisheng Wu1,
  5. Liping Xia1,
  6. Hui Shen1,
  7. Jing Lu1
  1. 1 Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China
  2. 2 Department of Sports Medicine and Joint Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China
  1. Correspondence to Dr. Jing Lu, Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang PR 110001, China; lujingtan{at}


To investigate serum interleukin (IL)- 35 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to describe the association between serum IL-35 levels and clinical parameters: erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C reactive protein (CRP), global health on Visual Analog Scale, Disease Activity Score in 28 joints based on ESR (DAS28-ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPAs). The study included 129 patients with RA and 83 healthy controls. Serum IL-35 levels were detected by ELISA. ESR and CRP were measured by the Westergren method and the immune transmission turbidity method, respectively. RF and ACPA were measured using immunoturbidimetric assays and chemiluminescence analysis, respectively. The results showed that serum IL-35 levels were elevated in patients with RA. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the high serum IL-35 levels were correlated with low ESR and DAS28-ESR. These suggested that IL-35, an important anti-inflammatory cytokine, may participate in the regulation of the pathogenesis of RA, especially with disease activity.

  • interleukins
  • arthritis, rheumatoid

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  • Contributors Data curation: YL, SL, JW. Formal analysis: YL. Methodology: YL, JL. Writing, original draft: YL. Writing, review and editing: LY, HS, LX. Funding acquisition: JL. Project administration: JL.

  • Funding This study was funded by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 81471542) and the Doctoral Scientific Research Foundation of Liaoning Province (No. 20180540123).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval Ethics committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Patient consent for publication Obtained.

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