The role of renal excretion of Pi in relation to vascular calcification (VC) in patients in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is controversial. Thus, we determine the relation between fractional excretion of phosphorus (FEP) and VC, measured using two methods in a cross-sectional study of patients with stage 3 CKD. We recorded demographic data, anthropometry, comorbidities and active treatment. We measured 24-hour urine FEP and, in serum, measured fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), α-Klotho, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium and phosphorus. VC was measured by lateral abdominal radiography (Kauppila index (KI)) and CT of the abdominal aorta (measured in Agatston units). In 57% of subjects, abnormal VC was present when measured using CT, and in only 17% using lateral abdominal radiography. Factors associated with VC using CT were age, cardiovascular risk factors, vascular comorbidity, microalbuminuria and levels of FGF23, phosphorus and calcium x phosphorus product (CaxP); although only age (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.41), smoking (OR 21.2, CI 4.4 to 100) and CaxP (OR 1.21, CI 1.06 to 1.37) maintained the association in a multivariate analysis. By contrast, only age (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.74), CaxP (OR 1.14, CI 1.13 to 1.92) and FEP (OR 1.07,95% CI 1004 to 1.14) were associated with abnormal VC in the lateral abdominal radiography. In conclusion, in patients with stage 3 CKD, the detection of VC by abdominal CT is more sensitive than conventional X-rays. Moreover, CaxP is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and vascular comorbidity; quantification of FEPi in these patients provides additional clinical information in advanced VC detected by KI.
- fractional excretion of phosphorus
- vascular calcification
- stage 3 CKD
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