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Diagnostic accuracy of three morning sputum versus standard sputum smears for pulmonary tuberculosis

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  • Y-NW and CH contributed equally.

  • Contributors Y-NW and J-LW (3th) collected the data and did the analysis. CH supervised the data collection and analysis, and revised the manuscript. M-SW and J-LW (5th) designed the study and wrote the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Detail has been removed from this case description/these case descriptions to ensure anonymity. The editors and reviewers have seen the detailed information available and are satisfied that the information backs up the case the authors are making.

  • Ethics approval The ethics committee of Shandong Provincial Chest Hospital has approved the study and written informed consent was waived, according to article 39.1 of the ethics guidelines enacted by the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the PRC (

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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