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Relationships between chronic comorbidities and the atherosclerosis indicators ankle-brachial index and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
  1. Chun-Chuan Lee1,2,
  2. Ming-Chieh Tsai1,
  3. Sung-Chen Liu1,2,
  4. Chi-Feng Pan2,3,4
  1. 1 Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
  2. 2 Department of Medicine, Mackay Medical Collage, New Taipei City, Taiwan
  3. 3 Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
  4. 4 Mackay Medicine, Nursing and Management College, Taipei, Taiwan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Chi-Feng Pan; chifeng{at}yeahmca.cn

Abstract

This study aimed to determine associations between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) with different comorbidities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Records of patients with type 2 DM who received an ABI and baPWV examination between August 2013 and February 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Associations of ABI and baPWV with chronic kidney disease (CKD), chronic liver disease (CLD), coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) were examined by regression analysis. A total of 1232 patients (average age, 65.1±10.0 years) were included in the analysis. CKD and DN were associated with low ABI and increased baPWV (all, P<0.001). No associations were found between CAD and CLD and ABI or baPWV. Thus, regression analysis was performed for CKD and DN. Low ABI was associated with risk of CKD in the crude model (OR 0.724, 95% CI 0.648 to 0.808, P<0.001) and adjusted model (OR 0.872, 95% CI 0.762 to 0.999, P=0.048), whereas baPWV was only significant in the crude model (OR 1.199, 95% CI 1.112 to 1.294, P<0.001). Low ABI was associated with risk of DN in the crude model (OR 0.873, 95% CI 0.780 to 0.977, P=0.018) and adjusted model (OR 0.884, 95% CI 0.782 to 0.999, P=0.048). No association was found for baPWV. In conclusion, low ABI was associated with risk of CKD and DN in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  • peripheral arterial disease
  • atherosclerosis
  • diabetes complications
  • chronic disease

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Footnotes

  • Contributors C-CL: conception and design; acquisition of data; analysis and interpretation of data; drafting of the manuscript; critical revision of the manuscript; guarantor of integrity of the entire study; statistical analysis; definition of intellectual content; literature research; clinical studies; experimental studies; obtaining funding; administrative, technical or material support; supervision. M-CT: conception and design; acquisition of data; analysis and interpretation of data; drafting of the manuscript; critical revision of the manuscript; guarantor of integrity of the entire study; statistical analysis; definition of intellectual content; literature research; clinical studies; experimental studies; obtaining funding; administrative, technical or material support; supervision. S-CL: conception and design; acquisition of data; analysis and interpretation of data; drafting of the manuscript; critical revision of the manuscript; guarantor of integrity of the entire study; statistical analysis; definition of intellectual content. C-FP: conception and design; acquisition of data; analysis and interpretation of data; drafting of the manuscript; critical revision of the manuscript; guarantor of integrity of the entire study; statistical analysis; definition of intellectual content. All authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript submitted.

  • Funding This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Detail has been removed from this case description/these case descriptions to ensure anonymity. The editors and reviewers have seen the detailed information available and are satisfied that the information backs up the case the authors are making.

  • Ethics approval This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of our hospital, and because of the retrospective nature the requirement of informed patient consent was waived.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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