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Hydration and obesity among outpatient-based population: H2Ob study
  1. Juana Carretero-Gómez1,
  2. Jose Carlos Arévalo Lorido1,
  3. Ricardo Gómez Huelgas2,
  4. Begoña De Escalante Yangüela3,
  5. Borja Gracia Tello3,
  6. Luis Pérez Belmonte2,
  7. Javier Ena Muñoz4
  8. on behalf of the SEMI Working Group of Diabetes and Obesity
  1. 1 Department of Internal Medicine, Zafra County Hospital, Badajoz, Spain
  2. 2 Department of Internal Medicine, Regional University Hospital of Malaga, Malaga, Spain
  3. 3 Department of Internal Medicine, Regional University Hospital Lozano Blesa, Zaragoza, Spain
  4. 4 Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Marina Baixa, Alicante, Spain
  1. Correspondence to Dr Juana Carretero-Gómez, Department of Internal Medicine, Zafra County Hospital, Badajoz 06300, Spain; juanicarretero{at}


Recent evidence suggests that obese people are hypohydrated and that water consumption may be a useful indicator for the prevention and treatment of obesity. Nevertheless, there is no agreement regarding the best hydration status indicators and there are few data about the relationship between hydration and body weight. In the present study, we aim to analyze the correlation among hydration status with obesity measured by three different methods (plasma osmolarity, urinary specific gravity (USG) and urinary osmolarity) in a hospital-based outpatient population. We have carried out a cross-sectional study to evaluate the association between obesity and hydration status in 260 patients, average 56.5±15.7 years. Hydration status was estimated by means of plasma osmolarity, urine osmolarity and USG. We did show significant trend of higher urine osmolarity (P=0.03), USG (P=0.000) and plasma osmolarity (P=0.000) with an increase of weight status categories, more accurate in the case of plasma osmolarity. In a multivariate analysis, after controlled by confounders, we found that obesity was associated with plasma osmolarity (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.17, P=0.009), urine osmolarity (OR 1.00; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.01, P=0.05) and USG (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.04, P=0.05). Our results have shown a more accurate relationship between plasma osmolarity with all body mass index categories. This finding may have clinical implications that must be confirmed in further studies.

  • obesity
  • adipose tissue
  • appetite
  • body weight
  • urinalysis

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  • Contributors All authors contributed to the data collection. The manuscript was written by JCG. The statistical analysis was performed by JCAL. JCAL, RG-H and JEM have contributed to the editing of the manuscript.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval Ethics committee of University Hospital ‘Infanta Cristina’, Badajoz, Spain.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.