This study aimed to investigate the associations among dementia, psychotropic medications and the risk of overall injuries. In this nationwide matched cohort study, a total of 144 008 enrolled patients ≥age of 50, with 36 002 study subjects who suffered from dementia and 108 006 controls matched for sex and age, from the Inpatient Dataset, for the period 2000–2010 in Taiwan were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database, according to International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification. When adjusting for the confounding factors, a Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to compare the risk of developing psychiatric disorders during the 10 years of follow-up. Of the study subjects, 6701 (18.61%) suffered injury when compared with 20 919 (19.37%) in the control group. The Cox regression analysis revealed that the study subjects were more likely to develop an injury (HR: 2.294, 95% CI=2.229 to 2.361, P<0.001) after adjusting for sex, age, monthly income, urbanization level, geographic region, and comorbidities. Psychotropic medications in the subjects with dementia were associated with the risk of injury (adjusted HR=0.217, 95% CI: 0.206 to 0.228, P<0.001). Cognitive enhancers, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, were associated with the risk of injury in the study subjects after being adjusted for all comorbidities and medications (adjusted HR=0.712(95% CI=0.512 to 0.925, P<0.01)). In conclusion, patients who suffered dementia had a higher risk of developing injury, and the cognitive enhancers were associated with the decreased risk of injury.
- national health insurance research database
- cohort study
- cognitive enhancers
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Contributors P-CC and N-ST conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination, data interpretation, performed the statistical analysis and drafted the manuscript. W-CC, C-HC, C-WC, C-BY , S-YH, R-BL and H-AC participated in the design of the study and data interpretation. C-HC, H-WY, W-SC and Y-CC participated in the statistical analysis and data interpretation. P-CC wrote the paper. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript as submitted.
Funding This work was supported by the Tri-Service General Hospital Research Foundation under the grants TSGH-C105-003, TSGH-C105-130, and TSGHC106-002.
Competing interests None declared.
Ethics approval This study was conducted in accordance with the Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki). The Institutional Review Board of the Tri-Service General Hospital approved this study and waived the need of individual consents since all the identification data were encrypted in the NHIRD (IRB No. 2-104-05-126 and IRB No. 1-104-05-145).
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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