Introduction Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is known to target the gastrointestinal system and is associated with extra gastrointestinal manifestations, but there is limited literature on cardiac associations. The most supported pathogenesis uses chronic inflammation as a risk factor causing atherosclerosis resulting in cardiovascular disease. Our aim is to evaluate whether there is an association between HP infection and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and coronary artery disease (CAD).
Method We performed a retrospective single center study at our medical center from 2005 to 2014 consisting of 1,671 patients who underwent Coronary Angiography (CA). We divided these patients into two groups based on CA reports. Patients with CAD defined as left main stenosis of ≥50% or any stenosis of ≥70% versus normal coronaries. We reviewed each patient chart to determine the prevalence of positive serum HP IgG antibody. Smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity were also considered in each group.
Results Of 1,671 patients, 1,237 had evidence of CAD vs 434 with normal coronary arteries. Twelve percent of CAD patients were found to have seropositive HP (SPHP) versus 1% in the control group (OR: 7.3, 95% CI: 3.5–15, p<0.0001) as depicted in figure 1. When we looked at the CAD group and compared SPHP patients to seronegative HP (SNHP) patients we found a greater amount of multiple coronary vessels disease in the SPHP group (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1–2, P=0.04). With regards to AMI, 30% of the SPHP group presented with AMI versus 10% seen in the SNHP group (OR: 4.3, 95% CI: 3–6.5, p<0.0001). In the CAD group with SPHP there was more hyperlipidemia and a higher BMI than in the CAD SNHP group (p<0.0001 and <0.0001, respectively), but there was no statistical difference between the two groups for the risk factors of smoking, hypertension and diabetes.
Conclusion According to this study, the results showed a correlation with SPHP patients and CAD. Patients with HP seropositivity also tend to have multiple coronary artery vessel disease. In addition, our results also confirmed that there is an association between with HP infection and AMI. We hypothesize that the associated maybe secondary to inflammatory reaction associated with HP. Additional studies with larger sample groups are needed to investigate the possible role of this pathogen as a risk factor for heart disease⇓.
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