Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and Wnt play different roles in bone homeostasis. Thiazolidinediones are PPARγ agonists that cause bone mineral density loss. This study investigated the relationship between PPARγ and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.
Methods MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with either pioglitazone (Pio) or rosiglitazone (Rosi), thiazolidinediones, for 24 hours at 10 to 40-μM concentrations. Recombinant mouse Wnt3a protein (50 ng/mL) for 6 hours was also used to treat the 20-μM Pio and Rosi pretreated cells. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT, and apoptosis with flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide staining; reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction measured mRNA expression levels of LRP5/6 (low-density lipoprotein–related protein 5/6), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), TCF7L2 (transcription factor 7–like 2), PPARγ, and cyclin D1, and Western blots detected β-catenin and p-GSK3β proteins.
Results Pioglitazone and Rosi decreased MC3T3-E1 cell viability by 28.07% and 18.14% at 20 μM, respectively (P < 0.05). Apoptosis increased compared with controls (7.21%), after 20-μM treatment with Pio or Rosi, to 10.45% and 12.10%, respectively (P < 0.05). Both Pio and Rosi decreased β-catenin protein levels and increased p-GSK3β, but the LRP5/6, GSK3β, and TCF7L2 mRNA levels were constant. Upon activation of the Wnt pathway by mouse Wnt3a protein, β-catenin and p-GSK3β protein levels were reversed, accompanied with increased proliferation, but apoptosis remained high.
Conclusions Activation of PPARγ in osteoblasts accompanied Wnt signaling suppression. Activation of Wnt signaling alleviated the PPARγ proliferation decreases but not the apoptosis increases. The thiazolidinedione PPARγ agonists act in part through inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway, showing there is a relationship between PPARγ and Wnt signaling.
- Wnt signaling
- cell proliferation
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