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Sex, Weight Status, and Chronic Kidney Disease Among African Americans
  1. Marino A. Bruce, PhD, MSRC, MDiv, CRC*†,
  2. Bettina M. Beech, DrPH,
  3. Errol D. Crook, MD§,
  4. Mario Sims, PhD*,
  5. Derek M. Griffith, PhD,
  6. Sean L. Simpson, PhD,
  7. Jamy Ard, MD,
  8. Keith C. Norris, MD
  1. From the *Mississippi Institute for the Improvement of Geographic Minority Health, University of Mississippi Medical Center; †Jackson State University, Jackson, MS; ‡Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; §University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL; ∥Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN; and ¶Charles Drew University, Los Angeles, CA.
  1. Received October 17, 2012, and in revised form December 31, 2012.
  2. Accepted for publication January 2, 2013.
  3. Reprints: Marino A. Bruce, PhD, MSRC, MDiv, CRC, Mississippi Institute for the Improvement of Geographic Minority Health, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 N State St, Jackson, MS 39216. E-mail: mbruce{at}
  4. This research was supported by a grant from the Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of Minority Health (Prime Award Number 1 CPIMP091054-04) to the University of Mississippi Medical Center’s Institute for Improvement of Minority Health and Health Disparities in the Delta Region and career development awards from NHLBI to Jackson State University (1 K01 HL88735-05—Bruce) and the University of Mississippi Medical Center (1 K01 HL084682-01—Sims).
  5. The authors declare no conflicts of interest in relation to this work.

The Jackson Heart Study


Background Obesity has been shown to have implications for chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, it has received minimal attention from scientists studying CKD among African Americans.

Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the manner in which weight status has implications for CKD among this group through analysis of data drawn from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS).

Design Cross-sectional analysis of a single-site longitudinal population-based cohort.

Participants The data for this study were drawn from the baseline examination of the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). The analytic cohort consisted of 3430 African American men and women (21–84 years of age) living in the tricounty area of the Jackson, Mississippi metropolitan areas with complete data to determine CKD status.

Main Measurements The primary dependent variable was CKD (defined as the presence of albuminuria or reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2). Weight status, the primary predictor, was a 4-category measure based on body mass index.

Results Associations were explored through bivariable analyses and multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusting for CKD, weight status, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease risk factors as well as demographic factors. The prevalence of CKD in the JHS was 20%. The proportion of overweight, class I, and class II obese individuals was 32.5%, 26.9%, and 26.2% respectively. In the pooled model, weight status was not found to be associated with CKD; however, subgroup analysis revealed that class II obesity was associated with CKD among men (odds ratio, 2.37; confidence interval, 1.34–4.19) but not among women (odds ratio, 1.32; confidence interval, 0.88–1.98). The relationship between CKD prevalence and diabetes and CKD prevalence and hypertension varied by sex and differed across weight categories.

Conclusions Weight status has implications for CKD among the JHS participants, and this study underscores the need for additional research investigating the relationship between weight status, sex, and CKD among African Americans.

Key Words
  • kidney disease
  • obesity
  • sex
  • African Americans
  • Jackson Heart Study

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