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Insulin Signaling and Insulin Resistance
  1. Elmus G. Beale, PhD
  1. From the Department of Medical Education, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, TX.
  1. Received September 11, 2012.
  2. Accepted for publication September 13, 2012.
  3. Reprints: Elmus G. Beale, PhD, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, 5001 El Paso Dr, El Paso, TX 79905. E-mail: elmus.beale{at}
  4. Supported in part by a grant from the National Center for Research Resources (R13 RR023236).


Insulin resistance or its sequelae may be the common etiology of maladies associated with metabolic syndrome (eg, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure). It is thus important to understand those factors that affect insulin sensitivity. This review stems from the surprising discovery that interference with angiotensin signaling improves insulin sensitivity, and it provides a general overview of insulin action and factors that control insulin sensitivity.

Key Words
  • insulin resistance
  • metabolic syndrome
  • insulin sensitivity
  • angiotensin
  • cross talk

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