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Basal Glucagonlike Peptide 1 Levels and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Patients
  1. Daniel A. de Luis, MD,
  2. Rocio Aller, MD,
  3. Rosa Conde, PhD,
  4. David Primo, PhD,
  5. Olatz Izaola, PhD,
  6. Maria Jose Castro, MD, MJ,
  7. Manuel Gonzalez Sagrado, MD
  1. From the Institute of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Medicine School, Unit of Investigation, Surgical Department, and Endocrinology Department, Hospital Rio Hortega, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.
  1. Accepted for publication February 29, 2012.
  2. Received December 23, 2011, and in revised form February 29, 2012.
  3. Reprints: Daniel A. de Luis, Institute of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Medicine School, Valladolid University, C/Los perales 16 Simancas, 47130 Valladolid, Spain. E-mail: dadluis{at}
  4. The authors received no funding for this work.
  5. The authors have no conflicts of interest.
  6. Authors’ contributions: R Aller and D A de Luis performed clinical evaluation and wrote the article. D Primo performed clinical evaluation. O Izaola codified data in SPSS and clinical evaluation. R Conde and M Gonzalez performed biochemical evaluation. MJ Castro performed clinical evaluation.


Objective Glucagonlike peptide 1 (GLP-1) is the most potent stimulator of glucose-induced insulin secretion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships of basal circulating GLP-1 and metabolic syndrome in obese patients without cardiovascular disease.

Materials and Methods A sample of 202 obese patients was enrolled. Dietary intake, weight, bioimpedance, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood triglycerides, and GLP-1 levels were measured in all patients. To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, the definitions of the Adult Treatment Panel III was considered.

Results Patients were divided at the median of GLP-1 value (8.02 ng/dL): group 1 (n = 101) and group 2 (n = 101). Metabolic syndrome (MS) prevalence was higher in patients with the lowest median group of GLP-1 (52.5% vs 38.6%; P < 0.05). Correlation analysis showed a significant correlation among serum GLP-1 levels and the independent variables; waist-to-hip ratio (r = −0.15; P < 0.05), glucose (r = −0.15; P < 0.05), total cholesterol (r = −0.22; P < 0.05), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = −0.27; P < 0.05). In the logistic analysis with MS presence/absence as an independent variable, only weight and GLP-1 levels remained in the model. Weight shows an odds ratio of 1.10 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.13) by each increase of 1 kg of weight, and GLP-1 levels shows an odds ratio of 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.80–0.99) by each increase of 1 ng/dL of GLP-1 levels.

Conclusions Obese patients with MS had lower mean GLP-1 levels than those without MS. Glucagonlike peptide 1 levels remained as a preventive factor to develop MS.

Key Words
  • cardiovascular risk factors
  • GLP-1
  • metabolic syndrome

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