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Purpose: The National Institute of Nursing Research and co-sponsoring Institutes and Centers encourage research proposals in the management of chronic pain across the lifespan. Pain is a subjective experience that is influenced by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and psychosocial factors. Patient, health care provider, and system factors influence pain management. Research is needed to determine the most effective interventions to remove barriers to effective treatment; to determine the most effective pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies, including complementary and alternative therapies; to identify assessment tools for patients who …

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