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Purpose: The National Institute of Nursing Research and co-sponsoring Institutes and Centers encourage research proposals in the management of chronic pain across the lifespan. Pain is a subjective experience influenced by gender, age, race/ethnicity, and psychosocial factors. The management of pain is influenced by patient, health care provider, and system factors. Research is needed to determine the most effective interventions to remove barriers to effective treatment; to determine the most effective pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies, including complementary and alternative therapies; to identify assessment tools for patients …

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