Table 1

Characteristics of patients who had DXA scan and either lumbar spine radiograph or vertebral fracture assessment for comparison

CharacteristicsPatients with L1–L4 BMD Z-score >1 SD difference between adjacent vertebrae (n=25)Patients with L1–L4 BMD Z-score within 1 SD between adjacent vertebrae (n=56)p Values
Age10.4 (SD 4.0)12.7 (SD 4.5)0.03
Male14 (56%)28 (50%)0.64
Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic Caucasian23 (92%)53 (95%)0.64
 Others2 (8%)3 (5%)
Referral diagnoses for DXA
 Post-transplantation, chemotherapy, and radiation*14 (56%)23 (39%)0.65
 Primary bone diseases†2 (8%)7 (13%)
 Endocrine disease‡4 (16%)12 (21%)
 Others§5 (20%)15 (27%)
Relevant medications¶
 Glucocorticoids10 (40%)26 (46%)0.64
 Others**0 (0%)4 (7%)0.31
 No relevant medications15 (60%)28 (50%)0.47
  • *Bone marrow, heart, and kidney transplantation.

  • †Osteogenesis imperfecta, osteoporosis, and multiple stress fractures.

  • ‡Non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hyperthyroidism, premature pubarche, premature adrenarche, precocious puberty, primary ovarian failure, panhypopituitarism, Turner syndrome, growth hormone deficiency, adrenal insufficiency, and gender identity disorder.

  • §Duchenne muscular dystrophy, dermatomyositis, thalassemia, cerebral palsy, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, chromosomal abnormality (5.6 Mb duplication from 9q22.33 to 9q31.1 and 202 Kb duplication at 17p13.3), complex neurodevelopmental disease, cystic fibrosis, hypercalciuria, prematurity, Opitz trigonocephaly C syndrome, and Morquio A syndrome.

  • ¶2 children were on both categories of medications.

  • **Anastrozole, leuprolide, and phenytoin.

  • BMD, bone mineral density; DXA, dual X-ray absorptiometry.