Table 2

Oral DMTS

TreatmentDose/administrationFDA approvalCommon side effects
Teriflunomide
Aubagio
7 mg or 14 mg orally once dailyTo reduce frequency of clinical exacerbations by 31–36% in RRMS at 2 years
Approved 2012
Pregnancy category X
Headache, hair thinning, diarrhea, nausea
Mild elevation LFTs and decreased WCC
Fingolimod
Gilenya
0.5 mg orally QDAYDecrease disability and reduces frequency by 54% of clinical exacerbations in RRMS
Approved 2010
Pregnancy category C
Headache, influenza-like symptoms, diarrhea, back pain, pain in extremities, cough
Bradycardia and/or increased BP on first dose
Rare macular edema
Mild elevation LFTs and decreased WCC
Dimethyl fumarate
Tecfidera
120 mg orally two times a day first week, then 240 mg orally two times a dayTo reduce frequency of clinical exacerbations by 45–50% in RRMS
Approved 2013
Pregnancy category C
Flushing, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain
Mild increase LFTs and decreased WCC
  • BP, blood pressure; DMT, disease-modifying therapy; FDA, Food and Drug Administration; LFTs, liver enzyme tests; RRMS, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis; WCC, white cell count.