Table 2

Selected baseline characteristics of statin users and non-users of propensity score-matched cohort

Non-users (N=6728)Statin users (N=6728)Standardized differences
Age in years: mean (SD)52 (14)52 (12)0.002
Female sex: n (%)3168 (47.1)3154 (46.9)−0.004
Healthcare use
 Follow-up duration in days: mean (SD)1450 (778)1445 (584)−0.009
 Baseline period start date: n (%)
 FY 2004–20065181 (77.0)5166 (76.8)
 FY 2007–20091492 (22.2)1504 (22.4)
 FY 2009 to end of study55 (0.8)58 (0.9)0.006
 Number of inpatient admissions during the baseline period: mean (SD)0.65 (1.64)0.62 (1.98)−0.013
 Number of outpatient medical encounters during the baseline period: mean (SD)66 (105)65 (86)−0.014
Social and family history: n (%)
 Smoking*1816 (27.0)1821 (27.1)0.002
 Alcohol abuse/dependence99 (1.5)92 (1.4)−0.009
Comorbid conditions/diseases‡: n (%)
 Charlson comorbidity score: mean (SD)§0.74 (1.33)0.73 (1.31)0.003
 Obese-overweight1732 (25.7)1735 (25.8)0.001
 Thyroid diseases857 (12.7)860 (12.8)0.001
 Diabetes mellitus1321 (19.6)1354 (20.1)0.011
 Diabetes mellitus with complications475 (7.1)487 (7.2)0.006
 Pericarditis, endocarditis, myocarditis102 (1.5)108 (1.6)0.006
 Hypertension3556 (52.9)3510 (52.2)−0.014
 Myocardial infarction40 (0.6)49 (0.7)0.008
 Coronary artery disease418 (6.2)439 (6.5)0.010
 Cardiac dysrhythmias823 (12.2)759 (11.3)−0.028
 Congestive heart failure142 (2.1)129 (1.9)−0.012
 Cerebrovascular disease186 (2.8)185 (2.7)−0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease197 (2.9)186 (2.8)−0.008
 Nephritis and nephrosis87 (1.3)88 (1.8)0.001
 Chronic kidney disease113 (1.7)121 (1.8)0.006
 Rheumatoid arthritis104 (1.5)110 (1.6)0.007
 Systemic lupus erythematosus77 (1.1)72 (1.1)−0.007
 Schizophrenia and psychosis42 (0.6)29 (0.4)−0.028
 Suicide13 (0.2)19 (0.3)0.016
 Dementia§27 (0.4)24 (0.4)−0.007
 Mild liver disease§47 (0.7)41 (0.6)−0.010
Medications during the baseline period: n (%)
 Smoking cessation medication181 (2.7)176 (2.6)−0.004
 β-blocker976 (14.5)973 (14.5)−0.001
 Diuretic1846 (27.4)1785 (26.5)−0.20
 ACE/ARB2478 (36.8)2470 (36.7)−0.002
 Other antihypertensive medication285 (4.2)278 (4.1)−0.005
 Oral hypoglycemic503 (7.5)489 (7.3)−0.007
 Insulin166 (2.5)173 (2.6)0.006
 Proton pump inhibitor2138 (31.8)2097 (31.2)−0.013
 Aspirin1369 (20.3)1367 (20.3)−0.001
 NSAID3941 (58.6)3902 (58.0)−0.012
 SSRI979 (14.6)980 (14.6)<0.001
 Antipsychotic121 (1.8)117 (1.7)−0.004
 Systemic corticosteroid671 (10.0)671 (10.0)0
 Hormone replacement therapy750 (11.1)760 (11.3)0.005
 Testosterone42 (0.6)43 (0.6)0.002
Cardiovascular procedures during baseline period: n (%)
 ECG2308 (34.3)2258 (33.6)−0.015
 Echocardiography785 (11.7)761 (11.3)−0.010
 Stress test625 (9.3)617 (9.2)−0.004
 Percutaneous coronary intervention11 (0.2)19 (0.3)0.011
 Coronary artery bypass graft surgery3 (0.0)6 (0.1)0.004
  • *Smoking was defined using ICD-9-CM codes: 3051 and V1582.

  • †Family history of cardiovascular disease was defined using ICD-9-CM codes: V171, V1749, V174, V1741, and V173.

  • ‡Diagnoses were defined in accordance with the AHRQ Clinical Classifications Software disease categories (see online supplementary appendix 2).

  • §The method by Deyo et al was used to calculate the Charlson comorbidity score using administrative data. We also matched the cohort on the 17 components of the Charlson comorbidity score (not all of which are listed in this table).

  • ARB, angiotensin-receptor blockers; AHRQ, Agency for Health Research and Quality; FY, fiscal year; ICD-9-CM, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.