Smoking is the leading cause of avoidable death and is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Previous studies on the impact of passive smoking have not been applied to a Hispanic-majority population. We investigated the association between active smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and pre-diabetes risk in a New Mexico population. We hypothesized that pre-diabetes risk increases with increasing smoking status after adjustment for important covariates. We screened 219 adults from an ongoing study who were categorized according to their smoking status (never smoker, current smoker, previous smoker) and their exposure to ETS (exposed or unexposed). Glucose homeostasis status was assigned using A1c: no diabetes (A1c <5.7%), pre-diabetes (A1c 5.7–6.4%), and T2D (A1c >6.4%). Among 160 patients with complete data, 51.6% had no diabetes and 48.4% had pre-diabetes. The mean age was 44.8±13.5 years. The study population was predominantly female (64.4%), and the ethnic composition was 44.4% Hispanic, 39.4% non-Hispanic White (NHW), 10.6% American Indian, 2.5% African-American, and 3.1% other. Using a logistic model with 2-way interactions, all predicted probabilities for being at risk for pre-diabetes were significant at the 0.001 level for smoking status and ETS exposure after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, alcohol consumption, BMI, and blood pressure. Active or passive smoking is independently associated with pre-diabetes risk.
Contributors JRB assisted with data analysis and reviewed the manuscript, and he principally contributed to the revised, final manuscript. AM analyzed the data and prepared the manuscript. JC collected and entered the primary study data and reviewed the manuscript. MDE performed statistical analyses and assisted in the revision of the manuscript. MRB received the funding, conceived of the study design, obtained IRB approval, and a provided overall direction for the study.
Funding This study was supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (CDC NCCDPHP #1H75DP002861), and the University of New Mexico Clinical and Translational Research Center (NCATS #8UL1TR000041).
Competing interests None declared.
Ethics approval UNM Human Research Review Committee.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.