Fibulin-1, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, is closely correlated with angiogenesis. The purpose of this investigation is to determine serum and vitreous fibulin-1 concentrations in diabetic retinopathy (DR). This cross-sectional investigation was carried out in a population of 154 diabetic patients (54 without DR, 42 with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and 58 with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR)) and 49 control subjects. The diabetic group showed higher serum and vitreous fibulin-1 concentrations than the controls. Serum and vitreous fibulin-1 concentrations in PDR patients were significantly elevated compared with those in the other 3 groups. NPDR patients showed elevated levels of serum and vitreous fibulin-1 concentrations compared with patients without DR. Logistic regression analysis revealed that serum and vitreous fibulin-1 were risk factors for developing DR. Pearson correlation analysis showed that serum fibulin-1 was correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting plasma glucose and vitreous fibulin-1. Furthermore, Pearson correlation analysis showed that vitreous fibulin-1 was correlated with SBP, DBP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and serum fibulin-1. Serum and vitreous fibulin-1 concentrations are elevated under DR condition.