Background and Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is linked to several gastrointestinal malignancies including gastric cancer and affects a multitude of cellular processes involved in tumorigenesis. Vitamin D is presumed to have anticancer actions by inducing differentiation and cell cycle arrest in malignant cells. Furthermore, it significantly promotes apoptosis in the undifferentiated gastric cancer cell line HGC-27. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) associated with vitamin d deficiency.
Methodology A retrospective case-control study was conducted at Elmhurst Hospital Center from 2005–2015. Three hundred and four patients who were diagnosed with GA were selected as cases. Of 304 individuals with GA, 255 were excluded, because they did not have vitamin D levels, 49 patients were included in our study. The data was compared to a matched control group of 49 patients with no known malignancies who had vitamin D levels. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was compared between cases and controls using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals.
Results The mean age of the case sample was 63.96 vs 60.43% in the control group. The gender distribution was the same, 49% male and 51% female. Hispanic patients were predominant in both samples accounting for 61.2% of the groups (table 1). Of 49 patients with GA included in our study, 20.48% were stage I; 36.7% were stage II; 24.9% were stage III, and 18.4% were stage IV. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the case group (GA) was significantly higher than in the control group 19[38.8%] vs 7[14.3%] respectively (OR: 3.8, 95% CI 1.42–10.18, P value 0.0079) figure 1.
Conclusion The results of our study suggest that there is a positive correlation between vitamin D deficiency and gastric adenocarcinoma. More specifically patients with vitamin D deficiency have an increased association with GA. Additional multicenter randomized double blind clinical trials are required to further assess this association and the potential benefit of vitamin D supplementation in preventing gastric adenocarcinoma⇓.
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