Article Text

  1. H Alkhawam1,
  2. M Mariya Fabisevich1,
  3. R Sogomonian1,
  4. JJ Lieber1,
  5. R Madanieh2,
  6. A Madanieh2,
  7. TJ Vittorio2,
  8. M El-hunjul3
  1. 1Internal Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (Elmhurst), Corona, New York, United States
  2. 2St. Francis Hospital – The Heart Center®, Roslyn, New York, United States
  3. 3Internal Medicine, Present Saint Joseph Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, United States


Background Tobacco abuse and alcohol dependence have been established as risk factors for atherosclerotic heart disease (ASHD). Their potential synergistic effect, however, have not been previously evaluated.

Abstract ID: 12 Table 1

Objective/Purpose To investigate the synergistic role of alcohol abuse/dependence and tobacco use in the early incidence of ACS.

Methods A retrospective chart analyses of 8076 patients diagnosed with ACS between 2000 to 2014, defined by ICD-9 codes for acute MI, alcohol abuse/dependence and tobacco use. Average age of ACS was calculated for the general population. Patients were then divided into 4 subgroups based on alcohol abuse/dependence and tobacco use status as follows: non-alcoholic non-smokers, non-alcoholic smokers, alcoholic non-smokers and alcoholic smokers.

Results The mean age of our 8076 ACS patients population was ∼59.5 (95% CI 59.2–59.8). Patients with history of alcohol abuse/dependence appeared to develop ACS ∼8.7 years younger than their non-alcoholic counterparts. When tobacco use is incorporated as a risk factor, those with both alcohol abuse/dependence and tobacco use seemed to develop ACS ∼5 years earlier than those with history of either alone, and ∼20 years earlier when compared to those with neither alcohol abuse/dependence nor tobacco use.

(table 1 summarizes mean age of ACS incidence in our study subgroups).

Conclusions Alcohol abuse/dependence appears to be a risk factor for earlier ACS. In our population, the average age of ACS incidence in alcoholic patients was significantly earlier than non-alcoholic patients. Furthermore, alcoholic patients who also used tobacco developed ACS at an even younger age when compared to those who had history of either alcohol abuse/dependence or tobacco use alone, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of these two risk factors in developing early ACS. Healthcare intervention in this population through screening, counseling and education regarding alcohol abuse/dependence and smoking cession is warranted to reduce early ACS.

  • Abdomen

Statistics from

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.