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Carotid Proliferative Plaque Formation in a Canine Model of Chronic Hypertension
  1. Zuojun Tian, MD, PhD*,
  2. Yuechun Shen, MD,
  3. Haixing Liao, MD,
  4. Tong Yang, MS§,
  5. Xiaoming Wang, MD,
  6. Xiujing Han, MD,
  7. Yaxian Dong, MD*,
  8. Tianhui You, MD**
  1. From the Departments of *Neurology, †Cardiovascular Disease, and ‡Ultrasonography, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University; §Department of Pathology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College; Departments of ∥Hepatobiliary Surgery and ¶Clinical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University; and **Nursing College, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China.
  1. Received March 5, 2013, and in revised form May 2, 2013.
  2. Accepted for publication May 4, 2013.
  3. Reprints: Zuojun Tian, MD, PhD, Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, 151 Yanjiangxi Rd, Guangzhou 510120, People’s Republic of China. E-mail: tianzuojun9{at}
  4. Supported by grants from the Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (7301663 and 10151009504000007), the Guangdong Province Science and Technology Foundation ([2010] 1096), and Guangdong Province College Students Innovation Project Foundation (1057310039).
  5. The authors have no conflicts of interest.
  6. Y.S. and Z.T. contributed equally to this work.


Background There are few reports describing arterial plaque formation induced by hypertension alone. The aim of this study was to establish a canine model of chronic hypertension and investigate carotid plaque development.

Methods Ten beagles were studied; 5 underwent bilateral renal artery constriction via a novel vascular clip, and 5 sham-operated animals served as controls. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), lipid values, the intima-media thickness, and the carotid artery plaque score were investigated during 1 year after placement of the clips.

Results The mean SBP and DBP over time were significantly greater in the constriction group (P < 0.001 for SBP, P < 0.01 for DBP). There were no significant differences in blood lipid levels or other biochemical parameters. Carotid plaques were demonstrated at 4 months postoperation in the constriction group; and in the constriction group, intima-media thickness became significantly greater at 4 months (P < 0.05), and plaque scores became significantly higher at 8 months (P = 0.034) after clip placement. Carotid stenosis was proved by digital subtraction angiography 1 year after clip placement, and histological examination revealed that the plaques were mainly comprised of smooth muscle cells, proteoglycans, and collagen fibers, but few macrophages and little lipid.

Conclusions Carotid proliferative plaques were developed in a canine model of chronic hypertension induced by a novel vascular clip. The plaques were mainly comprised of smooth muscle cells, proteoglycans, and collagen fibers.

Key Words
  • carotid plaque
  • renovascular hypertension
  • canine model

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